Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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Ataturk

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General

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as he is commonly known, (2,4) was a Turkish (1,2) nationalist and military leader (1,4) general (1) [OR] Field Marshal (2,8) and revolutionary (2,8) statesman, (1,2) and author. (8)

Early Life

Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa (2,6) Kemal Ataturk was born (1,2) probably in the spring (4,7) [OR] May 19th, (4,11) in 1881, (1,2) in a 3-story pink house (12) on Islahane (12) Islahhane (13) Street, (12,13) in the Kocakasım (12,13) ward (13) [OR] District of (16) Salonica, (1,2) [OR] Salonika (now Thessaloniki), (5,6) now in (7,11) Greece, (3,7) in the Salonica Vilayet, (2) of what was then (5,6) a thriving port of (15) the Ottoman Empire. (2,4) Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was born just as Mustafa to (10) Ali Rıza Efendi and (4,6) Zubeyde (4,7) [OR] Zübeyde (6,12) Hanim. (4,6) His family was precariously (16) middle-class, Turkish-speaking and (9,16) Albanian (11,16) Muslim. (9,16) Due to the large Jewish community of Thessaloniki in the Ottoman period, many of the Islamist opponents who are disturbed by his reforms claimed that Atatürk had Dönmeh ancestors, that is Jews converted to Islam. (16) His father Ali Riza Efendi may have been ethnically Albanian, though some sources state that (11) his family was made up of nomads from the Konya region of Turkey. (11,12) His paternal grandfather, Hafız Ahmet Efendi, was from the Kocacık Yörüks (a Turkish nomadic tribe), who had emigrated from Konya and Aydın and settled in Macedonia during the 14th and 15th centuries. (12) Ali was a minor official (5,10) who served as an officer, (12,14) with the rank of lieutenant (15) in the local militia (12,15) [OR] military (14) during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, indicating that his origins were within the Ottoman ruling class, if only marginally. (15) At Mustafa’s birth, his father Ali Riza hung his sword over his son’s cradle, dedicating him to military service. (15) In civilian life he was a pious (14) title-deed (10) estate (12) clerk (10,12) and later a timber merchant. (5,10) He married Zübeyde Hanım in 1871. (12) Zübeyde was a devout and strong-willed (7) blue-eyed, Turkish or possibly Macedonian (11) housewife. (10) Unusually for that time she could read and write. (11) She raised Mustafa (7) [OR] Mustafa (2,6) and his sister. (7) The couple had six children (11,12) Four of Atatürk’s five siblings died at an early age and (11,12) only Mustafa and his sister Makbule Atadan survived to adulthood. (11,12) [OR], he was the only child of the couple who survived past childhood. (10) Makbule died in 1956. (12)

Education

Zubeyde Hanim wanted her son to study religion, (11) so when Mustafa reached school age (12) he was first enrolled in a traditional religious school, (7,11) the Hafız Efendi local primary school (12) which he attended ‘reluctantly’. (11) [OR] Ali Riza saw to it that his son’s earliest education was carried out in a modern secular school, rather than in the religious school his mother would have preferred. (15) He grew up with a more secular turn of mind (11) and soon switched to a modern school (7) [OR] he attended a series of military schools. (9) His father later allowed him to (11) [OR] upon his father’s request (12) he later switched to Şemsi Efendi School (11,12) a secular private school. (11) In this way Ali Riza set his son on the path of modernization. (15) This was something for which Mustafa always felt indebted to his father. (15) In 1888 (12) when Mustafa was 7, (11) his father died. (11,12) Zübeyde Hanım moved to her step-brother’s (15) Rapla (12) farm outside Salonika. (15) Concerned that Mustafa might grow up uneducated, she sent him (15) back to Salonika, (12,15) where he registered at the Salonika Mülkiye Rüştiye (secondary school) (12,13) [OR] Junior High School for Civil Servants, (14) that would have prepared him for a bureaucratic career (15) [OR] to learn a trade. (16) After a short time in 1893, he (14) transferred to the military Rüştiye. (13) [OR] Junior High School. (14) Mustafa became enamoured of the uniforms worn by the military cadets in his neighbourhood. (15) He determined to enter upon a military career. (15) In 1893, when Atatürk was 12, he was sent to (5,7) [OR] decided, without consulting his mother (11) [OR] his parents1 (16) that he would, (11) against his mother’s wishes, (15) take the entrance exam for a (11,15) military (5,7) high (7,11) school, (5,7) the Monastir (11,14) [OR] Manastır (Bitola) (12) Military (11,12) High (7,11) [OR] Middle (12) School. (11,12) [OR] the Salonica Military School (Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi) in 1893. (16) He was a good student (7,9) and his mathematics teacher (7,10) Captain Üsküplü (16) Mustafa (13,16) Efendi (13) gave him (7,10) [OR] He took (6,16) the second name Kemal (meaning perfection (7,10) [OR] ‘mature and perfect’ (12) in recognition of young Mustafa’s superior achievement. (7,10) He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal. (7,10) In 1896 (12,13) [OR] 1895 (15) he went to the Monastir (14) [OR] Manastır (13) (now Bitola, North Macedonia) (15) Military School. (12,13) He made several new friends, including Ali Fethi (Okyar), who would later join him in the creation and development of the Turkish republic. (15) On 14th (16) March (15,16) 1899 he went to the Ottoman (11,12) Military Academy (5,7) in the neighbourhood of Pangaltı within the Şişli district of the Ottoman capital (16) of Istanbul. (5,7) He enjoyed the freedom and sophistication of the city, to which he was introduced by his new friend and classmate Ali Fuat (Cebesoy). (15) There was a good deal of political dissent in the air at the War College, directed against the despotism of Sultan Abdülhamid II. (15) Mustafa Kemal remained aloof from it until his third year, when he became involved in the production of a clandestine newspaper. (15) His activities were uncovered, but he was allowed to complete the course, (15) graduating with the rank of (12,13) second (15) lieutenant in 1902 (12,13) and ranking in the top 10 of his class of more than 450 students. (15) He went on to attend the Army War (12) [OR] General Staff (15) College, (12,15) graduating on (5,7) January (11,12) 11th (12,13) 1905 (5,7) with the rank of Staff Captain (7,10) [OR] captain. (11,12) [OR] major, (13) and ranking fifth out of a class of 57; he was one of the empire’s leading young officers. (15)

Military Service

Damascus

Mustafa Kemal’s career almost ended soon after his graduation when it was discovered that he and several friends were meeting to read about and discuss political abuses within the empire. (15) A government spy infiltrated their group and informed on them. (15) He was arrested by the police for his anti-monarchist activities. (16) A cloud of suspicion hung over their heads that was not to be lifted for years. (15) The group was broken up and its members assigned to remote areas of the empire. (15) Mustafa was confined for several months he was released only with the support of Rıza Pasha, his former school director. (16) Between 1905 and 1907, (12) he was stationed in Syria and Palestine for a few years. (9) He served (12) as an army officer (6,7) in the Fifth Army based in Damascus. (10,11) He was in the same company as Ali Fuat (15,16) (Cebesoy) and Lütfi Müfit (Özdeş). (16) He was angered by the way corrupt officials were treating the local people. (15) Becoming involved again in antigovernment activities (15,16) He joined [OR] helped found (15) a short-lived secret group (15,16) of reformist officers led by a merchant Mustafa Elvan (16) called the Society for Fatherland and Freedom. (15) [OR] Motherland and Liberty”. (16)

Macedonia

Nevertheless, in September (15) [OR] 20th June (16) 1907 (15,16) Mustafa Kemal was declared loyal and (15) after being promoted to Senior Captain (10,12) [OR] ‘Kolağası’ (13,16) (senior major) (13) [OR] adjutant major, (14) on 13 October (16) 1907, he was assigned (12,14) to the headquarters of (16) the 3rd Army (12,14) in Bitola (Manastır) (11,12) [OR] Monastery (14) in the Republic of Macedonia. (11) [OR] reassigned to Salonika, [OR] Salonica (9) which was awash with subversive activity. (15), While continuing his service (10) Mustafa Kemal joined the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) (15,16) with membership number 322. (16) The CUP had ties to the nationalist and reformist Young Turk movement. (10,15) although in later years he became known for his opposition to, and frequent criticism of, the policies pursued by the CUP leadership. (16) On 22 June 1908, (16) he was appointed the Inspector of the Ottoman Railways in Eastern Rumelia. (10,16)

The Young Turks

In July 1908 (15,23) an insurrection broke out in Macedonia. (15) A revolutionary movement of the intellectuals, (10) the so-called Young Turk Revolution of 1908 (9,15) had successfully seized power from Sultan Abdulhamid II and established the constitutional monarchy, (9,10) Kemal played a role in this Revolution. (16) So did Boris Johnson’s great grandfather Ali, also known as ‘Kemal’.

AliKemal
Ali Kemal, Boris Johnson’s great-grandfather

Ali_Kemal had acquired strong liberal democratic convictions, which caused him to be exiled from the Ottoman Empire under Abdul Hamid II, but immediately after the end of the Sultan’s personal rule in July 1908, he became one of the most prominent figures in Ottoman journalistic and political life. (23) Because of his opposition to the Young Turks who had made the revolution, he spent most of the following decade in opposition. (23) He was at one time editor of the liberal İkdam newspaper and a leading member of the Liberal Union. (23) In The Times dated 9 March 1909, on speculating that he would contest the seat of the late Minister of Justice Refik Bey, Ali_Kemal was described as amongst the “leading men of letters in Turkey, an excellent speaker, and personally popular”. (23) The sultan was forced to reinstate the constitution of 1876, which limited his powers and reestablished a representative government. (15) The hero of this “Young Turk Revolution” was Enver (Enver Paşa), who later became Mustafa Kemal’s greatest rival; the two men came to dislike each other thoroughly. (15) In 1909 two elements within the revolutionary movement came to the fore. (15) One group favoured decentralization, with harmony and cooperation between the Muslims and the non-Muslims. (15) The other, the dominant antigovernment group, was the Committee for Union and Progress, advocated centralization and Turkish control. (15) An insurrection spearheaded by reactionary troops broke out on the night of April 12–13, 1909. (15) The revolution that had restored the constitution in 1908 was in danger. (15) Military officers and troops from Salonika, among whom Enver played a leading role, marched on Istanbul. (15) They arrived at the capital on April 23rd, and by the next day they had the situation well in hand. (15) The Committee for Union and Progress took control and forced Abdülhamid II to abdicate. (15) Enver was thus in the ascendancy. (15) Mustafa Kemal felt that the military, having gained its political ends, should refrain from interfering in politics. (15,16) He urged those officers who wanted political careers to resign their commissions. (15) This served only to increase the hostility of Enver and other Committee for Union and Progress leaders toward him. (15) Mustafa Kemal turned his attention from politics to military matters. (15) He translated German infantry training manuals into Turkish. (15) From his staff position he criticized the state of the army’s training. (15) His reputation among serious military officers was growing. (15) This activity also brought him into contact with many of the rising young officers. (15) A feeling of mutual respect developed between Mustafa Kemal and some of these officers, who were later to flock to his support in the creation of the Turkish nation. (15)

The Action Army

He led the Turkish nationalist movement from 1909. (1) For a period of about 9 years from 1909 to 1918, (10) the hard-drinking Mustafa Kemal (9) held a number of posts in the Ottoman army. (9,10) In April 1909 in İstanbul, a group of soldiers began a counter-revolution known as the 31st March Incident. (16) Atatürk was instrumental in suppressing the revolt. (16) On April 19th, 1909, he was the Chief of Staff in the Action Army (12,13) the ‘Special Troops’ (Hareket Ordusu) (13) which entered Istanbul to quell the March 31st Incident2. (12,13) He was proposing depoliticization in the army, a proposal which was (16) disliked by the leaders of the CUP. (15,16) so he was transferred to field command (15,16) in the Tripolitania Vilayet (present Libya, then an Ottoman territory) under the pretext of suppressing a tribal rebellion towards the end of 1908. (16) According to Mikush however, he volunteered for this mission. (16) He suppressed the revolt and returned to İstanbul in January 1909. (16) In 1910 he was called to the Ottoman provinces in Albania. (16) he fought to suppress (11) an Albanian uprising in Kosovo. (11,16) [OR] led by Isa Boletini. (16) In 1910 he met with Eqerem Vlora the Albanian lord, politician, writer, and one of the delegates of the Albanian Declaration of Independence. (16) Later, in the autumn of (16) 1910 (12,16) he was sent to observe French army maneuvers in Picardy. (12,15) Although consistently denied promotion, Mustafa Kemal did not lose faith in himself. (15) In 1911, he worked (12,16) for a short time (16) at Ottoman General Staff (12) [OR] Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) (16) in Istanbul. (12,16)

Libya

In 1911, (5,10) and 1912 (9,10) he served against the Italians in Libya. (5,9) His rising reputation as a military man took off. (11) The Italo-Turkish War arose from a 1902 agreement between Italy and France over dividing Ottoman lands in North Africa. (11) The Ottoman Empire was known at that time as the ‘sick man of Europe,’ so other European powers were deciding how to share the spoils of its collapse long before the event actually took place. (11) France promised Italy control of Libya, then comprised of three Ottoman provinces, in return for non-interference in Morocco. (11) Italy launched an attack (11,12) with a massive 150,000-man army (11,16) against Ottoman Libya (11,15) [OR] Tripoli (12) in September 1911. (11) Many of the Ottoman troops in Libya had been sent to the Ottoman province of Yemen in order to put down the rebellion there, so the Ottoman government was caught with inadequate resources to counter the Italians in Libya, and the British government, which controlled the Ottoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan, did not allow sending additional Ottoman troops to Libya through Egypt. (16) Atatürk was one of the Ottoman commanders sent to repel this invasion with only 8,000 regular (11,16) Turkish (16) troops, plus 20,000 local Arab and Bedouin militia members, (11,16) and he went there immediately to fight. (15) The Ottoman soldiers like Atatürk went to Libya either dressed as Arabs (risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egypt) or through very few available ferries (the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively controlled the sea routes to Tripoli). (16) Mustafa Kemal took up duties with a group of comrades in the Tobruk and Darnah (12) [OR] Derne (13) [OR] Derna (16) regions. (12) He was key to the December (11,12) 22nd (12,16) 1911 Ottoman victory in the Battle of Tobruk (11,12) in which 200 Turkish and Arab fighters held off 2,000 Italians and drove them back from the city of Tobruk. (11) During the Battle of Derna on 16–17 January 1912, while Atatürk was assaulting the Italian-controlled fortress of Kasr-ı Harun, two Italian planes dropped bombs on the Ottoman forces and a piece of limestone from a damaged building’s rubble entered Atatürk’s left eye; which caused a permanent damage on his left eye’s tissue, but not total loss of sight. (16) He received medical treatment for nearly a month; he attempted to leave the Red Crescent’s health facilities after only two weeks, but when his eye’s situation worsened, he had to return and resume treatment. (16) Malaria and (15) this trouble with his eye (15,16) required him to leave the front for treatment in Vienna. (15) After defeating the Italians he was appointed as the Commander of Darnah on March 6th, 1912. (12,16) He managed to defend and retain the city and its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October 1912. (16) Despite this valiant resistance, (11) Italy overwhelmed the Ottomans (11,16) when Atatürk, Enver Bey, Fethi Bey and the other Ottoman military commanders in Libya had to return to Ottoman Europe following the outbreak of the Balkan Wars on 8 October 1912. (16) In the October 1912 Treaty of Ouchy, the Ottoman Empire signed away control of the provinces of Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica, which became Italian Libya. (11,16)

Balkan Wars

When Kemal_Ali returned to the Ottoman Empire in 1912, he married again. (23) His second wife was Sabiha Hanım, the daughter of an Ottoman pasha. (23) They had one son, Zeki Kuneralp, who was born in October 1914. (23) On his return from exile, Ali_Kemal made a speech in favour of a war against the Balkan League in Stambul on 3 October 1912. (23)

First War

As Ottoman control of the empire eroded, ethnic nationalism spread among the various peoples of the Balkan region. (11) Ethnic conflict broke out twice in the First and Second Balkan Wars. (11) On 8th (23) October 1912 (15,23) while Mustafa Kemal was in Vienna for treatment on the shrapnel injury to his eye, (15) [OR] in Libya (16) the First Balkan War broke out. (15,23) Montenegro started it by declaring war against the Ottomans. (23) Mustafa Kemal fought in the Balkan Wars (1912 – 1913). (5,10) In October (12) 1912, (11,12) the First Balkan War began when (12) the Balkan League (made up of the newly independent Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia) attacked the Ottoman Empire in order to wrest away control of areas dominated by their respective ethnic groups that were still under Ottoman suzerainty. (11) Through suzerainty, a nation maintains internal autonomy while another nation or region controls foreign policy and international relations. (11) Mustafa Kemal participated in the war with regiments from Gallipolis and Bolayır. (12) On 1st December 1912, Atatürk arrived at his new headquarters on the Gallipoli peninsula and, during the First Balkan War, he took part in the amphibious landing at Bulair on the coast of Thrace that was commanded by Binbaşı Fethi Bey, but this offensive was repulsed during the Battle of Bulair by Georgi Todorov’s 7th Rila Infantry Division under the command of Stiliyan Kovachev’s Bulgarian Fourth Army. (16) He was assigned to the defense of the Gallipoli Peninsula, an area of strategic importance with respect to the Dardanelles. (15but within two months the Ottoman Empire lost most of its territory in Europe, including Monastir and Salonika, places for which Mustafa Kemal had special affection. (15) Among the refugees who poured into Istanbul were his mother, sister, and stepfather. (15) Thus the Ottomans, including Atatürk’s troops, lost the First Balkan War. (11) Taking advantage of the political confusion reigning in the aftermath, the Committee For Union And Progress (CUP) seized power in a coup d’etat in January 1913. (27) Enver, Talaat, and Jemal, formed the governing triumvirate, dividing the governance of the Ottoman Empire among themselves. (27)

Second War

The Second Balkan War lasted only two months, in June and July (15) of 1913, (11,12) during it (10,11) Mustafa Kemal’s former schoolmate Ali Fethi was named ambassador, and Mustafa Kemal accompanied him (15) as the (10,12) Ottoman (10) Military Attaché (10,12) to Sofia. (12,15) [OR] to all Balkan states. (10,16) In June 1913, during the Second Balkan War, Kemal took part in the Ottoman Army forces commanded by Kaymakam Enver Bey that (16) recovered Dimetoka and Edirne (12,16) (Adrianople, the capital city of the Ottoman Empire between 1365 and 1453, thus of utmost historic importance for the Turks) together with most of eastern Thrace from the Bulgarians. (16) The Ottomans regained part of their lost territory, (11,15) much of the territory of Thrace that had been seized by Bulgaria. (11) This fighting at the frayed edges of the Ottoman Empire was fed by ethnic nationalism. (11) As the incumbent attaché, (12) he was promoted to the rank of (10,12) Kaymakam (10,16) (Lieutenant Colonel) (10,12) on 1st March (16) 1914. (10,12) Relations were renewed with Bulgaria. (15) As it led the empire to a partial recovery in the Second Balkan War, the CUP monopolized political power domestically by bringing the Parliament completely under its influence. (27) It also began to steer away from the long-held Ottoman foreign policy of alliances with Great Britain and France, and forged a stronger military cooperation with Germany. (27) Moreover, the CUP compensated for the Ottoman retreat in the Balkans by promoting Pan-Turkism, an expansionist program designed to challenge Russia in its southern tier. (27) By the time World War I broke out in August 1914, the CUP constituted a chauvinistic band which had subordinated the Ottoman state to its Turkist ideology. (27)

TurkeyMap

Figure 1: Turkey highlighting some of the places important in Ataturk’s life.

World War I

In 1914, a related ethnic and territorial spat between Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire set off a chain reaction that soon involved all the European powers in what would become World War I. (11) World War I was a pivotal period in Atatürk’s life. (11) During the war, (1,8) the Ottoman Empire (9,11) entered the European and Middle Eastern theatres (16) [OR] was forced to participate (12,14) [OR] inevitably involved (13) was propelled into war against its better interests by the C.U.P. entering into a secret accord with Germany. (27) It allied itself with Germany and Austria-Hungary (9,11) to form the Central Powers, fighting against Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. (11) Mustafa Kemal complained of Enver’s close ties to Germany and predicted German defeat in an international conflict. (15) To consolidate Turkish rule in the remaining territories of the Ottoman Empire and to expand the state into the so-called Turanian lands in the east, most held by Iran and Russia, the CUP devised in secret a program for the extermination of the Armenian population. (27) By this time, the ageing empire had lost almost all of its territory in Europe and Africa. (9) Once World War I broke out and the Ottoman Empire entered on the side of the Central Powers, Kemal sought a military command. (15) Enver made him cool his heels in Sofia but finally (15) in January 1915, his assignment as Military Attaché in the Balkans ended (12,15) He was appointed to Tekirdağ (12) to establish (12,16) the 19th Division (11,12) of the Fifth Army in Gallipoli. (11,15) To the Ittihadists, the global crisis of 1914 represented a rare opportunity to change the fortunes of the Ottoman state and to use the cover of war to embark upon a policy of both internal and external social engineering the likes of which had not been attempted or imagined. (27) Once again they gambled on the element of surprise, subterfuge, and radical daring, this time against a civilian minority population. (27) Even though the initial advance of Ottoman forces in 1914 into Russia and Iran did not result in a permanent expansion, on the whole the Ottoman armies held Allied forces in check until 1916 and did not capitulate until 1918. (27) The main thrust of the Armenian Genocide, however, was implemented within the first year of the war, years ahead of any imminent collapse. (27) In his capacity as the Deputy Commander-in-Chief (the honorary command being reserved for the sovereign), Enver exercised ultimate control over the Ottoman armies which carried out major atrocities, first in 1915 and then with renewed vigor when Turkish forces broke the Russian line in 1918 and invaded the Caucasus. (27) The forces under the command of his brother, Nuri, and uncle, Halil, spread devastation through Russian Armenia and carried out massacres of Armenians all the way to Baku. (27) Talaat as Minister of the Interior in Istanbul ran the government for a figurehead grand vizier. (27) He was the mastermind of the Armenian Genocide and coordinated the various agencies of the Ottoman government required for the deportation, expropriation, and extermination of the Armenians. (27)

Gallipoli

Atatürk predicted that the Allied Powers would attack the Ottoman Empire at Gallipoli, (11,16) and he became the front-line commander there. (16) He made his military reputation (5,6) in 1915 (5,7) by securing the Ottoman Turkish victory (7,11) at the Battle of (8) Gallipoli (6,8) and repelling the Allied invasion at the Dardanelles in 1915. (5,7) Britain and France sent in a total of 568,000 men over the course of the Gallipoli Campaign, including large numbers of Australians and New Zealanders. (11) Colonel (7,9) [OR] General (1) Mustafa Kemal (7) distinguished himself throughout the nearly year-long (9) Gallipoli Peninsula campaign. (9,11) The British and French fleets suffered heavy losses during the attempts to pass through the Straits on March 18th, 1915, so they decided to land troops on the Gallipolis (12) [OR] Gallipoli (9,11) Peninsula. (12) When the enemy forces landed at Arıburnu (12,14) (Cape of Bees) (12) now called Anzak Koyu (Anzac Cove) (14) on April 25th, 1915, the 19th Division, under the command of Mustafa Kemal, stopped them at Conkbayırı (Chunuk Bair). (12) ) Under Atatürk’s leadership, the Turks held off a British and French attempt to advance up the Gallipoli Peninsula. (11) The Turks held on to the high ground at Gallipoli, keeping the Allied forces pinned to the beaches. (11) Mustafa Kemal’s command to his soldiers, ‘I am not ordering you to attack, I am ordering you to die!’ changed the fate of the battle. (12) His success thrust Mustafa Kemal onto the world scene. (15) He was hailed as the “Saviour of Istanbul” (15) and was promoted to colonel (12,15) on June 1st 1915. (15) The British forces attacked Arıburnu again on August 6th-7th, 1915. (12) Mustafa Kemal, now in command of the Anafartalar Group, won the Battle of Anafertalar3 on August, 9th-10th. (12) This victory was followed by victories at Kireçtepe on August 17, and the 2nd Battle of Anafartalar victory on August 21st. (12) He won successive victories and (7) held his position until the Allies retreated, (16) inflicting a key defeat on them. (7,11) He became a national hero. (7) The Entente States had to admit that Dardanelles were impassable. (12) ‘Çanakkale is unpassable!’ (13) 44,000 Allied soldiers were killed and almost 100,000 were wounded. (11) The Ottoman force was smaller, numbering about 315,500 men, of whom about 86,700 were killed and over 164,000 were wounded. (11) During the battle, Mustafa Kemal himself was hit by a piece of shrapnel, which lodged in the watch he carried in his breast pocket and thus failed to cause him serious injury. (15) The Turkish Nation, which had 253,000 (12) [OR] 228,000 (11) casualties during the Gallipolis Battles, had known how to protect its honour against the Entente States. (12) This bloody but successful defensive action (11,16) formed one of the centrepieces of Turkish nationalism in the years to come, and Atatürk was at the centre of it all. (11) The period of the Gallipoli campaign saw the mass deportations of the civilian Armenian population, carried out in the spring and summer of 1915 and completed by the autumn; the systematic slaughter of the Armenians had started earlier with the murder of the able-bodied males already drafted into the Ottoman armed forces. (27) By expropriating the movable and immovable wealth of the Armenians, the CUP also looked upon its policy of genocide as a means for enriching its coffers and rewarding its cohorts. (27) The elimination of a commercially viable minority fulfilled part of the nationalist program to concentrate financial power in the hands of the state and promote greater Turkish control over the domestic economy. (27) Enver, Talaat, and Jemal, who were responsible for these policies formed the governing triumvirate which had concentrated power its hands with the January 1913 coup. (27) The triumvirs divided the governance of the Ottoman Empire among themselves. (27)

Russian Front 1916

Following the Allied withdrawal from (11,12) Gallipoli [OR] Gallipolis (12) in January 1916, (11) Mustafa Kemal served in Edirne until 14th January 1916. (16) After the massive Russian offensive had reached key Anatolian cities. (16) He was assigned to the command of the 16th Corps of the Second Army (16) and sent to the Russian front, (15,16) the Caucasus Campaign (16) in eastern Turkey. (7,9) On April 1st, (12,13) 1916 (7,12) at age 35, (7) he was promoted to the rank of Major General (12) [OR] brigadier-general (9,14) [OR] general (7,15) [OR] lieutenant general (13) acquiring the title of pasha. (15) He took up duties in Diyarbakır. (12) This was a period when the Armenian Massacres were in full swing. (9,22) An estimated 1.5 million Armenians died and others were expelled during the war and its aftermath, but Mustafa Kemal has not been linked to the perpetration of the genocide. (9) Between July 19164 (22) and March 19175 the Turkish Army on the Caucasian Front lost 60,000 men to starvation, disease and other causes, leaving effectively only 20,000. (22) Marshal Liman von Sanders attributes these losses to the destruction of Turkish agricultural production because of the deportations of the Armenians. (22) On April 6th, 14,000 Armenians were massacred in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain), to the south of where Kemal was. (22) 24,000 deportees were reported still living there. (22) By April 14th 70,000 Armenians were reported massacred there. (22) On April 15th a battalion of the Turkish 4th Army Engineers arrived in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain) from Damascus to assist in massacring the Armenians. (22) On April 15th 19,000 Armenian deportees arrived near the Khabur River, less than 100 miles south of him. (22) On April 16th the New York Times reported that German Catholics had placed the number of massacred Armenians at 1,000,000, and that they blamed England for this great crime. (22) On April 19th 50 to 100 Armenian deportees are reported to be dying of starvation every day on the Euphrates. (22) On April 28th the Turkish government again rejected foreign relief for the Armenians. (22) On May 3rd, according to The New York Times, 15,000 Armenians had been massacred in the nearby town of Mamakhatun, west of the city of Erzerum before its fall, (22) On June 30th a proposal was made to the Armenian labour battalions in Damascus and to the civilian deportees that they become Muslims. (22) Very few Armenians accepted. (22) On July 5th the massacre of the 7,000 Armenian troops imprisoned in Sivas begins. (22) On July 6th The Russian Army occupies Bayburt and Erzinjan. (22) In the middle of this, on 7th August, he rallied his troops and mounted a counteroffensive. (16) He fought successful battles against the Russian (11,12) Imperial Army in the Caucasus (11) and recaptured the two (7,12) major (7) provinces (7,12) of Muş and Bitlis (12,18) in 1916, (7) upsetting the calculations of the Russian Command. (16) He was the only Turkish general to win any victories over the Russians on the Eastern Front. (15) In order to further the Islamization and Turkification of the Armenian remnants in the Hawran District, all the Armenian clerics found there are murdered by the Turks. (22) On July 23rd the proposal was made to the Armenian military doctors in Sivas that they become Muslims. (22) Almost all of them refused and were at once killed. (22) On August 8th 15,000 Armenian deportees were removed from Aleppo to the desert. (22) On August 12th the Turkish government again refused aid to the Armenian deportees by a neutral commission. (22) On August 14th 200,000 Armenian deportees were reported killed in massacres by this date in the Zor District, at a delta formed by the juncture of the Khabur and Euphrates River near Suwar (Suvar), Marrat (Marat), and Elbusayra. (22) On September 3rd a five member commission of Turks arrived in the Hawran District to convert the Armenian deportees to Islam. (22) Two days later the government ordered all Armenian orphans to be given Turkish names. (22) On September 7th 60,000 more Armenian deportees were reported massacred in the Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) area. (22) September 16 Turkish authorities enter American consular offices to search for British records. (22) On September 29th the German Cabinet, in its 86th session, discussed the Armenian massacres. (22) On 3rd October Count Wolff-Metternich left his post as ambassador to Turkey, recalled by the German General Staff at the request of Enver because he had protested against the Armenian massacres. (22) Wilhelm Radowitz interim Chargé d’affaires reported to the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethman Hollweg On October 6th that of the two million Armenians in Turkey, one and half million had been deported. (22) Of these 1,175,000 were dead, and 325,000 still living. (22) On October 5th The Turkish government confiscates by a provisional law all the real estate of the Armenians. (22) October 8th and October 9th U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, proclaimed these two days ‘Armenian Relief Days.’ (22) On December 4th, Omer Naji, an inspector-general of the Ittihad Committee, announced that Ittihad intended to organize a purely Turkish state. (22) On January 4th Mr. Goppert of the German Embassy, visits Enver, Talaat and Foreign Minister Halil to convey that forcible Islamization had no connection with military necessity or the security of the state and must be stopped immediately. (22) On February 4th Talaat became the Grand Vizier of Turkey. (22) In March 1917, Ataturk received command of the entire Second Army, (11,15) although their Russian opponents withdrew almost immediately due to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution. (11,15) There he met Colonel İsmet (İnönü), who would become his closest ally in building the Turkish republic. (15) On 5th March the government distributed 400 Armenian orphans from Aleppo by rail to various villages and towns. (22) 350 Armenian orphans from an Armenian orphanage in Syria were given to surviving relatives, no matter how distantly related, in order to keep them from falling into the hands of the Turks. (22) Following victory over Russia, the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) government in Constantinople proposed to establish a new army in Hejaz (Hicaz Kuvve-i Seferiyesi) and appoint Atatürk to its command, but he refused the proposal and this army was never established. (16)

Palestine

Mustafa Kemal was thus available for service in the Ottoman provinces of Syria and Iraq, on which the British were advancing from their base in Egypt. (15) The sultan was determined to shore up the Ottoman defences in Arabia and prevailed upon Atatürk to go to Palestine (11) after the British captured Jerusalem in December 1917. (11,22) He was appointed to the command of the Seventh Army in Syria (15,16) under the command of the German general Erich von Falkenhayn’s Yildirim Army Group. (16) He spent a short time in Damascus and Aleppo. (12) On January 9th the Aleppo Police Department obtained the list of all the Armenian labour battalion workers constructing the Aleppo Normal School for the selection of those to be killed. (22) He was appalled by the sad state of the army (15,16) and did not get along well with General von Falkenhayn. (16) He wrote to the government, noting that the situation in Palestine was hopeless, and proposed that a new defensive position be established in Syria. (11,16) with Turks instead of Germans in command. (16) When Constantinople rejected this plan, (11,16) Atatürk resigned his post (11,15) and returned to the capital. (11,12) without permission. (15) He was placed on leave for three months (15) [OR] In the next two years, he served as commander of several Ottoman armies (7) in Syria (9,11) Palestine, (7,9)

State visit to Germany January 1917

He was then assigned to accompany (15,16) Crown Prince (12,13) Mehmed (16) Vahdettin Efendi (12,13) the heir to the throne (13) on a state visit (15) by train to Austria-Hungary and (16) Germany. (15,16) He examined the Western Front, (12,16) and concluded that the Central Powers would soon lose the war. (16) He did not hesitate to openly express this opinion to Kaiser Wilhelm II and his high-ranking generals in person. (16) He became ill after this trip. (12,13) with kidney problems, most probably related to gonorrhoea, which it is believed he had contracted earlier. (15) He went to Vienna and Karlsbad for treatment. (12,13) (His physical problems would later require him to have a personal physician in constant attendance throughout his years as president of the Turkish republic.) (15) While he was in Carlsbad, Sultan Mehmed V died, and Vahideddin assumed the throne as Mehmed VI. (15) Mustafa Kemal was recalled to Istanbul in June 1918. (15)

Palestine again

When Mehmed VI became the new Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in July 1918, (16) through Enver’s machinations, (15) he assigned Mustafa Kemal to command the collapsing Ottoman forces in Syria. (15,16) As the Central Powers’ defeat loomed, (11) on August (12,16) 15th, (12) 1918, Atatürk returned once more (11,12) to Aleppo as the Commander of the 7th Army. (12,16) [OR] to the Arabian Peninsula to supervise an orderly retreat. (11) He arrived in Aleppo on 26th August 1918, then continued south to his headquarters in Nablus. (16) He found the situation there worse than he had imagined. (15) The Seventh Army was holding the central sector of the front lines. (16) The Ottoman forces lost the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918. (11On 19th September, at the beginning of the Battle of Megiddo, the Eighth Army was holding the coastal flank but fell apart and Liman Pasha ordered the Seventh Army to withdraw to the north in order to prevent the British from conducting a short envelopment to the Jordan River. (16) The Seventh Army retired (15,16) towards the Jordan River (16) to save the lives of as many of his soldiers as possible, (15) but was destroyed by British aerial bombardment during its retreat from Nablus on 21 September 1918. (16) [OR] He undertook successful defensive battles against the British Forces. (7,12) Nevertheless, Atatürk managed to form a defense line to the north of Aleppo. (16) This was another major victory. (7) [OR] This was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman world. (11) On October 26th the Allied forces occupied Aleppo. (22) With the arrival of the British and French armies and the Armenian Legion, 125,000 remnants of the deported Armenians were rescued from the desert. (22) The war ended with the Armistice of Mudros (15,16) [OR] Moudros (12) [OR] Mondros (13) which was signed on 30th (15,16) [OR] 31st October, (12,16) 1918. (12,15) and all German and Austro-Hungarian troops in the Ottoman Empire were granted ample time to withdraw. (16) With the defeat of the Ottomans in World War I the destruction of the CUP became a drawn out matter pursued by all their opponents. (27) Fully cognizant of the Allied threat to hold them responsible for war crimes, the CUP cabinet ministers involved with the Armenian massacres resigned from the government on hearing of the (27) after the signing of the (12,13) Mudros (15,27) Armistice, (12,27) Atatürk was appointed to the command of the Yıldırım (12,16) Lightning (12) Army Group, (12,16) replacing Liman von Sanders. (16) He organized the distribution of weapons to the civilians in Antep in case of a defensive conflict against the invading Allies. (16) Atatürk’s last active service in the Ottoman Army was organizing the return of the remaining Ottoman forces in the Middle East. (11,16) He had been the most successful general officer of the empire in World War I. (6) According to Lord Kinross, Atatürk was the only Turkish general in the war who never suffered a defeat. (16) On November 13th, 1918, (12,15) [OR] 1919 (15) the Yıldırım Army Group was officially dissolved. (15,16)

Seizure of Power

Ottoman Collapse

The key Ittihadist leaders fled Turkey, while the rank and file went underground. (27) Shortly afterward, Enver and other leaders of the Committee for Union and Progress fled to Germany, leaving the sultan to lead the government. (15) Throughout October and early November, under the terms of the armistice (11) The Allied forces started to take over the Ottoman armies. (13) To ensure the continuation of his rule, Mehmed VI was willing to cooperate with the Allies, who assumed control of the government. (15) The Allies did not wait for a peace treaty (15) to begin claiming Ottoman territory. (12,15) and began to invade. (12) Allied statesmen seemed to be abandoning Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points in favour of the old imperialist views set down in the secret treaties and contained in their own secret ambitions. (15) The Allies made plans to incorporate the provinces of eastern Anatolia into an independent Armenian state. (15) French troops advanced into Cilicia in the southeast. (15) Greece and Italy put forward competing claims for southwestern Anatolia. (15) The Italians occupied Marmaris, Antalya, and Burdur. (15) On 11 November 1918 (Armistice Day) Ahmed Izzet Pasha was appointed Grand Vizier. (23,26) Ali_Kemal backed him with the support of the Naval and Khoja parties. (23) Two days after his term began, (15,26) on 13th November 1918, (15,16) the Allies began their occupation of Constantinople. (15,26) This was the same day that Mustafa Kemal returned to (11,12) Istanbul (12,15) [OR] Constantinople. (11,16) He arrived to see ships of the Allied fleet sailed up the Bosporus. (15) [OR] He found it occupied (11,16) by the victorious British and French. (11) [OR] Early in December 1918, Allied troops occupied sections of Istanbul and set up an Allied military administration. (15) This scene, as well as the city’s occupation by British, French, and Italian troops, left a lasting impression on Mustafa Kemal. (15) The Allies pressured sultan Mehmet VI to dissolve the parliament on 21st December. (25) For a few weeks, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha’s government was dissolved as well. (25) He formed his government again on 12 January 1919. (25) On 28th January 1919 Ali_Kemal Bey wrote, “Four or five years ago a historically singular crime has been perpetrated, a crime before which the world shudders. (23) Given its dimensions and standards, its authors do not number in the fives, or tens, but in the hundreds of thousands. (23) In fact, it has already been demonstrated that this tragedy was planned on the basis of a decision reached by the Central Committee of Ittihad.” (23) The government convened tribunals in 1919 to hear testimony on the conduct of the war and the implementation of the Armenian Genocide. (27) On 6th February Dr. Reshid, former governor-general of Diyarbekir Province and a major war criminal, commited suicide. (22) On February 8th, 1919, the French general Franchet d’Espèrey entered Istanbul in a spectacle compared to the entrance of Mehmed the Conqueror in 1453—but this time signifying that (15) Ottoman sovereignty over the imperial city was no more. (11,15)

Ministry of War

Kemal commenced duties at the Ministry of War. (12) He was determined to oust the Allies. (15) He began meeting with selected friends to formulate a policy to save Turkey. (15) Among these friends were Ali Fuat and Rauf (Orbay), the Ottoman naval hero. (15) Ali Fuat was stationed in Anatolia and knew the situation there intimately. (15) He and Mustafa Kemal developed a plan for an Anatolian national movement centred on Ankara. (15) In various parts of Anatolia, Turks had already taken matters into their own hands, calling themselves associations for the defense of rights and organizing paramilitary units. (15) They began to come into armed conflict with local non-Muslims, and it appeared that they might soon do so against the occupying forces as well. (15) Fearing anarchy, the Allies urged the sultan to restore order in Anatolia. (15) The grand vizier recommended Mustafa Kemal as a loyal officer who could be (15) sent to Anatolia as inspector general of the (12,15) 3rd (15) [OR] 9th (12) Army. (12,15) In April 1919 he was tasked with reorganizing the tattered Ottoman Army so that it could provide internal security during the transition. (11) Mustafa Kemal contrived to get his orders written in such a way as to give him extraordinarily extensive powers. (15) These included the authority to issue orders throughout Anatolia and to command obedience from provincial governors. (15) On May 15th, 1919, Greek troops landed at Izmir. (15) The Allied Powers forced Ahmet Tevfik Pasha to dissolve his ministry again, and he resigned as grand vizier on 3 March 1919. (25) Damit Ferid Pasha’s first ministry as Grand Vizier coincided with the Occupation of Smyrna by the Greek army. (24) The Turkish Independence War was started when the first bullet was fired against the enemy during the occupation of Izmir by the Greek forces on 15th (12,14) [OR] 14th (22) May 1919. (12,14) A mass meeting of 100,000 persons organized by Constantinople Police Department protested against the landing of the Greek Army at Smyrna. (22) The Greeks began a drive into the interior of Anatolia, killing Turkish inhabitants and ravaging the countryside. (15)

Going to Samsun, May 1919

As a result, (12,15) instead of his ‘reorganising’ work, (12) Mustafa Kemal went to Samsun (12,15) on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia on the morning of (15) May 19th, 1919, (12,15) as ‘the 9th Army Inspector’. (12) on assignment from the Ministry of War and the Grand Vizier in Constantinople. (22) Modern Turkish history may be said to begin with his landing at Samsun. (15) There he told a cheering crowd that the sultan was the prisoner of the Allies and that he had come to prevent the nation from slipping through the fingers of its people. (15) This became his message to the Turks of Anatolia. (15) On that same day Ali_Kemal was appointed Minister of the Interior in the cabinet of Damat Ferid Pasha, replacing Mehmet Ali Bey who had retired. (23) So psychologically meaningful was this date for Mustafa Kemal that, when in later life he was asked to provide his date of birth for an encyclopaedia article, he gave it as May 19, 1919. (15) and began to organize the army into (11) an independence movement based in Ankara (9,10) which would organise nationalist resistance. (11) He engaged himself completely in the Turkish war of Independence. (10) He galvanized his people against invading Greek forces who sought to impose the Allied will upon the war-weary Turks and repulsed aggression by British, French, and Italian troops. (15) Abandoning his official reason for being in Anatolia—to restore order—he headed inland for Amasya. (15) Meanwhile, on 11th June Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha officially confessed to massacres against Armenians and became a key figure and initiator of the war crime trials to condemn to death the chief perpetrators of the genocide, who were notably Committee of Union and Progress members and long-time rivals of his own Freedom and Accord Party. (24) Mustafa Kemal distanced himself from the Ittihadists but (27) absorbed into his forces former CUP members prepared to switch allegiance. (22,27)

Amasya Circular, June 1919

In the Amasya (11,12) Circular (11) [OR] Proclamation (12) published on June (11,12) 22nd (12,14) 1919 (11,12) he announced, ‘The independence of the country will be secured by the determination and decisiveness of the nation’. (12,14) Meanwhile, Ali_Kemal was one of the members of the Ottoman delegation to the Paris peace conference in June 1919. (23) On 25th June 1919, The Times reported that Ali_Kemal had accused agents of the Committee of Union and Progress of impeding the restoration of order in the Ottoman provinces, specifically accusing Talat Pasha of organizing Albanian brigand bands in the İzmit and Enver Pasha of doing the same in the Panderma, Balikesir, and Karasi districts. (23) He also alleged that the Committee for union and progress (CUP) had £700,000 of party funds available for propaganda as well as numerous fortunes made by profiteering during the Great War. (23) At some point between 25th June and 3rd July Ali_Kemal resigned. (23) The Allies pressured the sultan to recall Mustafa Kemal, who ignored all communications from Istanbul. (15) The sultan dismissed him and telegraphed all provincial governors, instructing them to ignore Mustafa Kemal’s orders. (15) Imperial orders for his arrest were circulated. (15,16) Mustafa Kemal avoided dismissal from the army by officially resigning late (15,16) on the evening of July 7th (15) [OR] on 8th July. (16) As a civilian, he pressed on with his retinue from Sivas to Erzurum, where General Kâzim Karabekir, commander of the XV Army Corps of 18,000 men, was headquartered. (15) At this critical moment, when Mustafa Kemal had no military support or official status, Kâzim threw in his lot with Mustafa Kemal, placing his troops at Mustafa Kemal’s disposal. (15) This was a crucial turning point in the struggle for independence. (15) On 18th July Ali_Kemal condemned the attacks on and massacres of the empire’s Armenians during the First World War and inveighed against the Ittihadist chieftains as the authors of that crime, relentlessly demanding their prosecution and punishment. (23) “… our Minister of Justice has opened the doors of prisons. (23) Don’t let us try to throw the blame on the Armenians; we must not flatter ourselves that the world is filled with idiots. (23) We have plundered the possessions of the men whom we deported and massacred; we have sanctioned theft in our Chamber and our Senate. (23) Let us prove that we have sufficient national energy to put the law into force against the heads of these bands who have trampled justice underfoot and dragged our honour and our national life through the dust.” (23)

Congress of Erzurum July 1919

Kemal warned that Turkey’s independence was in peril, (11) and he [OR] Kâzim (15) summoned a Congress (7,12) of all defence-of-rights associations (15) at Erzurum (7,12) on July 23, 1919. (12,14) Delegates from all over the country gathered there between (14) July 23rd and August 7th. (12,14) Mustafa Kemal was elected head of the Erzurum Congress and thereby gained an official status. (15) The congress drafted a document covering the six eastern provinces of the empire. (15) Later known as the National Pact, it affirmed the inviolability of the Ottoman “frontiers”—that is, all the Ottoman lands inhabited by Turks when the Armistice of Mudros was signed. (15) It also created a provisional government, revoked the special status arrangements for the minorities of the Ottoman Empire (the capitulations), and set up a steering committee, which then elected Mustafa Kemal as head. (15)

Sivas Congress September 1919

Mustafa Kemal sought to extend the National Pact to the entire Ottoman-Muslim population of the empire. (15) To that end, he called (15) a second national congress that met in Sivas on September 4th – 11th 1919 (12,14) and ratified the pact. (15) He exposed attempts by the sultan’s government to arrest him and to disrupt the Sivas Congress. (15)

Murder of Ali_Kemal

Ali_Kemal campaigned against the Kemalist movement. (23) Along with other conservatives serving under the Sultan in Istanbul, Ali_Kemal also set up an organisation known as the İngiliz Muhipler Cemiyeti (“The Anglophile Society”), which advocated British protectorate status for Turkey. (23) This, combined with his past opposition to the Committee of Union and Progress, made him anathema to the nationalist movement gathering strength in Ankara and fighting the Turkish War of Independence against the attempts between Greece and the Entente Powers to partition Anatolia. (23) The situation then changed drastically as the grand vizier in Istanbul (15,15) Damat Ferid Pasha (24) was driven from office (15,25) on 30th September 1919. (24) The new government, which was sympathetic to the nationalist movement, restored Mustafa Kemal’s military rank and decorations. (15) On 4th November, Ali_Kemal was kidnapped from a barber shop at Tokatliyan Hotel in Istanbul, and was carried to the Anatolian side of the city by a motor boat en route to Ankara for a trial on charges of treason. (23) On 6 November 1922, the party was intercepted at İzmit by General Nureddin Pasha, then the Commander of the First Army, which was aligned with Mustafa Ali_Kemal Pasha. (23) Ali_Kemal was attacked and lynched by a mob set up by Nureddin with sticks, stones and knives, and hanged from a tree. (23) His head was smashed by cudgels and he was stoned to death. (23) As described by Nureddin personally to Riza Nur, who with Ismet Inönü was on his way to Lausanne to negotiate peace with the Allies, “his blood-covered body was subsequently hanged with an epitaph across his chest which read, ‘Artin Ali_Kemal'”. (23) This bestowal of a fictitious Armenian name administered a final indignity to the victim. (23)

Ankara December 1919

The congresses at Sivas and Erzurum determined the path to follow in order to gain the nation’s independence, (12,14) and established the basis for the new national effort under his leadership. (7) Mustafa Kemal was welcomed with excitement in Ankara on December 27th 1919. (12,14) The last election to the Ottoman parliament, held in December 1919, gave a sweeping majority to candidates of the ‘Association for Defense of Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia (Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)’, headed by Atatürk, (16) who himself remained in Ankara. (15,16) Unconvinced of the sultan’s ability to rid the country of the Allied occupation, Mustafa Kemal established the seat of his provisional government there, 300 miles (480 km) from Istanbul. (15) There he would be safer from both the sultan and the Allies. (15) This proved a wise decision. (15) The fourth (and last) term of the parliament opened in Constantinople on 12 January 1920. (16) On March 16th, 1920, in Istanbul, the Allies arrested leading nationalist sympathizers, including Rauf, and sent them to Malta. (15) It was dissolved by British forces two days later on 18th March 1920, shortly after it adopted the Misak-ı Millî (“National Pact”). (16) The conciliatory Istanbul government fell and was replaced by reactionaries who dissolved the parliament. (15) The new government sentenced Mustafa Kemal to death in absentia, (9,15) pressuring the religious dignitaries into declaring Mustafa Kemal and his associates infidels worthy of being shot on sight. (15) This opposition failed to prevent Mustafa Kemal from building up both military and popular support. (9,15) The die was cast—it would be the sultan’s government or Mustafa Kemal’s. (15) Many prominent Turks escaped from Istanbul to Ankara, including İsmet and, after him, Fevzi (Çakmak), the sultan’s war minister. (15) Fevzi became Mustafa Kemal’s chief of the general staff. (15)

The Grand National Assembly, April 1920

In response to the Treaty of Sevres (11) [OR] On April 23rd, 1920 (7,12)6 Atatürk called a new national election and had a separate parliament installed. (11,15) This was known as the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. (7,11) On its first day (14) April 24th (12,13) 1920, he was elected as the Speaker of the Assembly (12,13) and the Head of the Government. (12,14) The position of Speaker was equal to (13) [OR] the same as (15) that of the president as well as the prime minister. (13) This was a significant step on the path to founding the Turkish Republic. (12) Its goal was to end foreign occupation of the Turkish-speaking areas and to stop them from being partitioned. (9) The Grand National Assembly started preparing and passing the new laws necessary for implementing the Independence War successfully. (14) The Turkish National Movement proclaimed itself to be the sole government of the nation and rejected the sultanate. (25)

Treaty of Sèvres August 1920

Mustafa Kemal was quite right to fear for the independence of Turkey. (11) At the conclusion of World War I, (10) the Allied powers, (5,9) Britain in the lead, dissolved Turkey’s parliament and strong-armed the sultan into signing away his remaining rights. (11) In June (15) 1920 the Allies handed the sultan the Treaty of Sèvres. (11,15) By the provisions of this treaty, the Ottoman state was greatly reduced in size. (9,15) Turkey would be partitioned among the victors of World War I (11,12) France, Britain, Greece, Armenia and the Kurds. (11) The Allies could occupy forts that controlled major waterways (10) and maintain an international force at the Bosporus Strait. (11) All Arab provinces were stripped from the Ottoman Empire; (9) There would be an independent Armenia (9,15) and an autonomous Kurdistan. (9) Greece was one of the major beneficiaries. (9,15) obtaining a region surrounding Smyrna (now Izmir) and asserting economic control over what little country remained. (9) Only a small state centered around Ankara would remain in Turkish hands. (11) After his second term as grand vizier, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha served as the president of the Ottoman delegation to the Paris Peace Conference ending World War I. (25) His delegation refused the heavy terms of the proposed treaty, but another delegation sent by the Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha accepted the terms and signed (25) [OR] The Sultan signed (15) the Treaty of Sèvres. (11,15) on August (11,15) 10th, (12,15) 1920 (11,15) This plan was completely unacceptable to Atatürk and his fellow Turkish nationalists, (11) and Kemal repudiated it. (15) In fact, it meant war: when the Allied occupation forces tried to partition Turkey as per the Treaty of Sevres, (11) militia forces called ‘Kuvay-i Milliye’ (National Forces) (12) fought against the occupying powers. (8,12) Mustafa Kemal persuaded the GNA (16) to put together an army. (11,16) It established a regular army, united the National Forces under this army (12) and launched the War of Turkish Independence. (11) [OR] It had already begun on May 15th 1919 with the shooting of the first bullet, during the Greek invasion of İzmir. (12) The GNA promulgated the necessary laws for the successful conclusion of the War of Independence and ensured the proper implementation of these laws. (12)

War of Liberation

This GNA Army faced the Caliphate army propped up by the Allied occupation forces and had the immediate task of fighting the Armenian forces in the Eastern Front and the Greek forces advancing eastward from Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) that they had occupied in May 1919, on the Western Front. (16) Throughout 1921, the GNA (11) army under Atatürk registered victories (7,8) against rebels (7) and invading armies (7,8) sent by the Allies (8) [OR] the neighboring powers. (11) He fought on many fronts. (7,9) Having received military aid from the Soviet Union, (9,15) he set out to drive the Greeks from Anatolia and Thrace and to subdue the new Armenian state. (15) In January 1920, Atatürk advanced his troops into Marash where the Battle of Marash ensued against the French Armenian Legion. (16) The battle resulted in a Turkish victory alongside the massacres of 5,000–12,000 Armenians spelling the end of the remaining Armenian population in the region. (16) In his message to Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader and head of the Russian SFSR’s government, dated 26 April 1920, Kemal promised to coordinate his military operations with the Bolsheviks’ “fight against imperialist governments” and requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments “as first aid” to his forces. (16) The GNA military successes against the Democratic Republic of Armenia in the autumn of 1920 and later against the Greeks were made possible by a steady supply of gold and armaments to the Kemalists from the Russian Bolshevik government from the autumn of 1920 onwards. (16) In 1920 alone, the Lenin government supplied the Kemalists with 6,000 rifles, over 5 million rifle cartridges, 17,600 projectiles as well as 200.6 kg of gold bullion; in the subsequent 2 years the amount of aid increased. (16) As the war against the Greeks started to go well for Mustafa Kemal’s forces, (15) France and Italy negotiated with the nationalist government in Ankara. (15) They withdrew their troops from Anatolia. (9,15) This left the Armenians in southeastern Anatolia without the protection of the French troops. (15) With the French and Italians out of the picture, Kâzim then moved against the Armenian state. (15) He was assisted by the Bolsheviks, who had established relations with the government of the GNA. (15) On 21st October 1920, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha was once more appointed grand vizier, replacing Damat Ferit Pasha. (25) With secret instructions from the Ankara government to proceed with the physical elimination of Armenia, General Kiazim Karabekir seized half the territories of Armenia in November 1920. (22) The Armenian population was driven out at the point of the sword with heavy casualties. (22) Deserting their Armenian protégés, the Russians now supplied the nationalists with weapons and ammunition and (15) joined the assault on the Armenian Socialist Republic, (15,22) which had been their own creation. (15) This combined attack was too much for (15) the Armenians, who were crushed (9,15) in October and November 1920; they surrendered early in November. (15) The important stages of the Turkish War of Independence were as follows: The Liberation of Sarıkamış (September 20, 1920), Kars (October 30, 1920) and Gümrü (November 7, 1920) Defending the provinces of Çukurova, Gaziantep, (12,14) Kahramanmaraş (12) [OR] Kahraman Maras (15) and Şanlıurfa (1919-1921). (12,14) By the Treaty of Alexandropol (December 3, 1920) and the Treaty of Moscow (March 16, 1921), (15) the nationalists regained the eastern provinces, (12,14) as well as the cities of Kars and Ardahan, and the Soviet Union became the first nation to recognize the nationalist government in Ankara. (15) Turkey’s eastern borders were fixed at the Arpa and Aras rivers. (15)

Sakarya – September, 1921

The Greeks were more difficult to overcome. (15) They were trying to seize Smyrna and its hinterland. (5) By the end of July, 1920 (15) after a series of battles (16) which had begun in June 1920, they had taken Bursa (15) and they advanced toward Ankara. (9,15) Ali Fuat was relieved as commander on this front and replaced by İsmet. (15) The Turks triumphed at two major battles at (7,12) the İnönü River, north of Kütahya. (15) in Western Turkey (7,12) The First was fought between January 6th and 10th, (12,14) 1921 (12,15) [OR] 1920 (14) The Greeks did not resume their offensive until March 1921. (15) İsmet again met them at the (15) second battle on the İnönü which took place between March 23rd (12,14) [OR] 27th (15) and April 1st 1921 (12,14) [OR] 1920. (14) On the evening of April 6–7, 1921, the Greeks broke off the engagement and retreated. (15) Undaunted, the Greeks launched another offensive on July 13, 1921. (15) They wrought havoc on the Turkish population during their (9) march as far as the Sakarya River, (15,16) within 50 miles of Ankara. (9,16) İsmet fell back before them, so close to Ankara that the artillery fire could be heard there. (15) Opposition to Mustafa Kemal developed in the GNA, led by Kâzim, who had grown jealous. (15) The opposition demanded that Mustafa Kemal’s powers be curtailed so that a new policy could be developed. (15) In addition they sought to have Mustafa Kemal assume personal direction of the war against the Greeks, anticipating a Greek victory that would result in the destruction of Mustafa Kemal’s stature and charisma. (15) On August (15,16) 4th (15) [OR] 5th (16) Mustafa Kemal was promoted to Commander in chief of the forces (15,16) on the condition that he be granted all the powers assigned to the GNA. (15) Mustafa Kemal then turned his attention to the Greeks, (5,9) In August, 1921, he launched an offensive against them. (9) He stopped the Greek advance at the Battle of Sakarya, (9,12) on September 19th (12) [OR] August 23rd – September 13th, 1921 (12,14) The battle ended with the defeat of the Greeks. (16) In recognition of that (7,12) on 19th September 1921, (16) the Turkish Grand National Assembly bestowed Mustafa Kemal with the rank of Marshal (7,12) and the title of Gazi (12,16) ‘war veteran’ (12) [OR] Victorious Fighter (14) [OR] Commander-in-Chief. (7) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha offered the nationalist Ankara government to join his monarchical Istanbul government to form one body at the Conference of London in 1921. (25) However, the leader in Ankara, Mustafa Kemal, refused the offer, and the two governments sent separate delegations to the conference, with Ahmet Tevfik Pasha himself leading the Istanbul delegation and Bekir Sami Kunduh leading the Ankara delegation. (25) However, once he arrived in London, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, in a surprising move, proclaimed that the Ankara government indeed was the sole rightful government of Turkey and allowed Bekir Sami to be the only representative at the conference. (25)

Smyrna

Sakarya broke the Greek lines (9) and Kemal followed this up with an offensive on August (15,16) 26–September 9, (15) 1922. (15,16) In August 1922, Atatürk launched an all-out attack on the Greek lines at Afyonkarahisar in the (16) Battle of Dumlupınar (14,16) that (16) pushed the Greeks into a full-scale retreat to the sea at Izmir. (9,15) [OR] Smyrna, (9,19) where Turkish revenge awaited. (19) The Allies, ignoring the extent of Atatürk’s successes, hoped to impose a modified version of the Treaty of Sèvres as a peace settlement on Ankara, but the proposal was rejected. (16) As the last Greek troops evacuated Smyrna on the evening of Friday 8th September, the first elements of Mustafa Kemal’s forces, a Turkish cavalry squadron, made its way into the city. (19) Turkish forces with Mustafa Kemal at the head (9,16,20) [OR] led by Mürsel Pasha and then Nureddin Pasha, General of the Turkish First Army, (19) regained control of Smyrna on 9th (16,18) September (9,16) 1922. (15,16) [OR] 1921. (9) On the morning of September 9th, no fewer than twenty-one Allied warships lay at anchor in Smyrna’s harbor, including the British flagship battleship HMS Iron Duke and her sister King George V, along with their escort of cruisers and destroyers under the command of Admiral Osmond Brock, the American destroyers USS Litchfield, Simpson, and Lawrence (later joined by the Edsall), three French cruisers and two destroyers under the command of Admiral Dumesnil, and an Italian cruiser and destroyer. (19) Sailors and marines from the Allied fleet were landed ashore to guard their respective diplomatic compounds and institutions with strict orders of maintaining neutrality in the event that violence would break out between the Turks and the Christians. (19) On 10th September 1922, Atatürk sent a telegram to the League of Nations saying that the Turkish population was so worked up that the Ankara Government would not be responsible for massacres. (16) It did not help that the Greeks had practiced scorched earth tactics during their retreat. (19) “A fire soon broke out in Smyrna (9) [OR] The Greek and Armenian parts of Smyrna were deliberately set on fire (19) which, along with looting and rampaging Turkish soldiers, claimed the lives of thousands of Greek and Armenian residents.” (9) The Turks slaughtered between 50,000 and 100,000 (19) [OR] thousands of Greek and Armenian residents. (9,19) The lucky ones (9,19) roughly 200,000 additional Greeks and Armenians (9) were evacuated by allied ships, (9,19) never to return. (9) When the war was over Kemal resisted the pressures of historic enmities or atrocity-mongering between the societies. (16) In spite of Turkish animosity against the Greeks, Kemal showed acute sensitivity to even the slightest allusion to these tensions; at one point, he ordered the removal of a painting showing a Turkish soldier plunging his bayonet to a Greek soldier by stating, “What a revolting scene!” (16)

Chanak, September 1922

After the recapture of Izmir (Smyrna) on 9th September the Turks were advancing on Constantinople in the neutral zone. (9,18) Kemal intended to push the Greek armies out of Turkey and (17) restore Turkish rule in the Allied occupied territories of Turkey, primarily in Constantinople (now Istanbul) and Eastern Thrace. (9,17) Turkish troops marched against British and French positions in the Dardanelles neutral zone (17) at Chanak (Çanakkale, a city at the Anatolian side of the Dardanelles Strait), (17,18) and threatened to attack it. (18) The British Cabinet met on September 15th, 1922 and decided that British forces should maintain their position (18) On 16th September, in the absence of Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon, (18) certain Cabinet ministers (17,18) probably including Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and Winston Churchill (17) issued a communiqué threatening Turkey with a declaration of war (17,18) by Britain and the Dominions, on the grounds that Turkey had violated the Treaty of Sèvres, (18) For a time, war between Britain and Turkey seemed possible. (17) Prime Minister David Lloyd George had not fully consulted the Dominion prime ministers, and unlike the case eight years earlier, when World War I broke out, Canada in particular did not automatically consider itself active in the conflict. (18) Canada refused to agree. (17) On 18th September, on his return to London, Curzon pointed out that this would enrage the Prime Minister of France, Raymond Poincaré and left for Paris to attempt to smooth things over. (18) French minister Raymond (17) Poincaré, however, had also already ordered the withdrawal of the French detachment at Chanak, but persuaded the Turks to respect the neutral zone. (18) The other Dominion Prime Ministers also gave no support, nor did the Serbs, Romania (18) or Italy (17,18) British public opinion did not want a war. (17,18) The British military did not either, and the top general on the scene, Sir Charles Harington, refused to relay an ultimatum to the Turks because he counted on a negotiated settlement. (17) Curzon reached Paris on September 20th, and after several angry meetings with Poincaré, reached agreement to negotiate an armistice with the Turks. (18) The Conservatives in Britain’s coalition government refused to follow Lloyd George. (17) On 23rd September, the British cabinet decided to abandon East Thrace to the Turks (18) rather than fight, and agreed to negotiate a new peace treaty. (9) On 28th September, Mustafa Kemal told the British, he had ordered his troops to avoid any incident at Chanak and agreed to a peace negotiation, nominating Mudanya as the venue. (18) They sent invitations to both the sultan’s government in Istanbul and Mustafa Kemal’s government in Ankara. (9) Damit Ferid Pasha was dismissed on 30th September. (24) The parties met there on 3rd October. (18) Turkey, (9,17) having overwhelmed the Greeks, (6,7) agreed to a negotiated settlement that gave it the territory it wanted, (9,17) two hours before British forces were due to attack. (18) The Turks may have been persuaded to agree by the arrival of British reinforcements. (18) The handling of the crisis by the British cabinet was a major contributor to the downfall of British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. (18)

Victory, September 1922

At the end of August (7) 1922, (5,7) [OR] by July 1923 (7) [OR] By the following autumn (11) the Turkish armies won their ultimate victory. (6,7) [OR] victories known as The Great Attack, (12) known as the Commander-in-Chief Battle (12,14) and the Great Victory (August 26th-September 9th, 1922). (12,14) The Assembly’s successful managing of the Turkish War of Independence accelerated the foundation of the new Turkish State. (12) With Anatolia rid of most of the Allies, (15) and before a peace conference could begin, (9) the Grand National Assembly in Ankara passed a resolution (9,15) at the behest of Mustafa Kemal, on November (13,15) 1st, (15,26) 1922, (13,15) declaring that the sultan’s rule had already ended. (9,15) On the morning of (21) November 17th 1922 (15,21) the last Ottoman sultan (9,15) Mehmed VI, (15) fearful for his life, (9) fled (9,15) his palace in a British ambulance (9) [OR] on board the British gunship Malaya. and went to Malta. (21) Even after his dismissal, (24) and the formation of a new Ottoman Government under Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, (24,26) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha met with his government. (25) With the sultan Mehmet VI gone and unable to find a reason to hold their offices any longer, the government began to resign one by one, and Ahmet Tevfik Pasha resigned three days after the abolition on 4th November 1922. (25) Within a few weeks, the Turkish mainland was completely liberated and an armistice signed. (7) The War of Independence had ended. (12) Damat Ferit Pasha remained widely disliked (especially in Anatolia) and with the Turkish victory in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), he fled to Europe. (24)

Treaty of Lausanne

The Allies invited the Ankara government to discussions that resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, (15) and the Conference of Lausanne began on 21st November 1922. (16) Turkey, represented by İsmet İnönü of the GNA, refused any proposal that would compromise Turkish sovereignty, such as the control of Turkish finances, the Capitulations, the Straits and other issues. (16) Although the conference halted on 4 February, it continued after 23 April mainly on the economic issues. (16) Subsequently, on July (9,11) 24th (11,12) 1923, (9,11) The national government (7,11) signed the Lausanne (5,7) [OR] Lozanne (13) Treaty (5,7) with Great Britain, France, Greece, Italy, and others. (7) The GNA was recognised as the government of Turkey, (16) which was in turn recognised as a fully sovereign Republic. (9,11) The Treaty of Lausanne revised the peace settlement made at Versailles, (5,12) freeing the country from being controlled by other countries. (6,12) It fixed the European border of Turkey at the Maritsa River in eastern Thrace. (15) Treaty of Lausanne signed by Turkey and the Allies excludes all mention of Armenia or the Armenians. (22) British and French forces were ultimately withdrawn from the neutral zone (Chanak) in summer 1923, following the ratification of the Treaty. (18) On 13th August 1923, Atatürk was re-elected Speaker of the Grand National Assembly. (13) The nationalists occupied Istanbul on October (15,26) 2nd (15) [OR] 6th (25) 1923. (15,26) Damat Ferit Pasha died in Nice, France, on the same day. (24) He was buried in the city of Sidon, Lebanon. (24) Ankara was named the capital, and (15) on October 29th the Turkish republic was proclaimed, (15,16) and since then Republic Day has been celebrated as a national holiday on this date. (16) Turkey was now in complete control of its territory and sovereignty. (15) [OR] The Treaty included the Lausanne Straits Agreement, which stated that the Dardanelles should remain open to all commercial vessels: seizure of foreign military vessels was subject to certain limitations during peacetime, and, even as a neutral state, Turkey could not limit any military passage during wartime. The waterway was to be demilitarized, and its management left to the Straits Commission. The demilitarized zone heavily restricted Turkey’s domination and sovereignty over the Straits. The defence of Constantinople was impossible without having the sovereignty over the water that passed through it. (16)

The Republic of Turkey

In mid-October, Ankara (7) once a provincial town deep in Anatolia, (16) became the capital of the new Turkish State. (7) On October 29th (7,10) 1923 (5,6) the Grand National Assembly (9) proclaimed the Republic of Turkey (8,9) and unanimously (12) elected Mustafa Kemal as its first president. (7,9) [OR] On August 13th, 1923, Ataturk was re-elected President of Turkey. (12) In accordance with the Constitution, presidential elections were repeated once every four years. (12) The Turkish Grand National Assembly re-elected Atatürk as president in 1927, 1931 and 1935. (12) Turkey became a secular Republic (5,6) no longer led by hereditary or religious leaders. (6) On October 30, 1923, the Republic’s first government was established by İsmet İnönü. (12) The Turkish Republic started to develop on the principles of ‘Sovereignty unconditionally and unrestrictedly belongs to the nation’ and ‘Peace at home, peace in the world’. (12)

Marriage and Personal Life

Atatürk’s personal life was a simple one. (12) Before being in a nuptial relationship, he was speculated to be in a romantic relationship with two women – Eleni Karinte and Fikriye Hanim. (10) on January 29th (10,12) 1923 he married (4,10) a Western-educated woman (15) Latife (4,10) Hanım (15) [OR] Usakligil (4,10) in İzmir. (12) Together they went on many trips throughout the country, (12) but the union was not a happy one and (10,16) after frequent arguments (16) the two were divorced (15,16) [OR] separated (10,12) on August 5th (12,16) 1925. (10,12) They had thirteen children (4) [OR] He never had any children. (9) [OR] he had no biological children, (9,10) but he loved children very much (12) and is said to have adopted (10,12) thirteen (12) [OR] ten (12) children, 12 daughters and one son (10) [OR] 8 daughters and two sons: (12) Afet (İnan), (12) Sabiha (10,12) (Gökçen (12) OR Gokcen (10)), Fikriye, Ülkü, Nebile, Rukiye, Zehra, (12) and a shepherd boy (13) named Mustafa, (12,13) and took two boys called Abdurrahim (12,13) Tunçak (13) and İhsan (12,13) under his protection, (13) and prepared a bright future for them. (12) Videos published on Youtube, and defended by Google alleged that Atatürk was a Freemason, and a homosexual. (10) Sabiha became famous for being world’s first female fighter pilot and Turkey’s first female pilot. (10,16) In 1937, he donated his farms to the treasury and some of his property to the Ankara and Bursa Municipalities. (12) From his estate, he spared shares for his sister, his adopted children and the Turkish Language and History Associations. (12) He enjoyed reading, listening to music, dancing, horseback riding and swimming very much. (12) He had an extreme interest in the Zeybek (Western Anatolian) folk dances, the Rumeli (Balkan Peninsula) folk songs and wrestling. (12) He enjoyed playing backgammon and billiards. (12) He put great value on his horse named Sakarya7 and his dog Fox. (12) He built up a rich library. (12) He invited statesmen, scientists and artists to dinners and debated the current issues of the country with them. (12) He paid great attention to his appearance. (12) He loved nature very much. (12) He frequently went to the Atatürk Forest Farm and personally participated in the activities. (12) He spoke French and German. (12)

The Kemalist Reforms

Government

Highlighting the public’s lack of knowledge regarding Atatürk’s intentions, the public cheered: “We are returning to the days of the first caliphs.” (16) Kemal gave Turkey a democratic constitution, (6,9) and joined the League of Nations. (9) Atatürk wanted a “direct government by the Assembly” and visualized a representative democracy, parliamentary sovereignty, where the National Parliament would be the ultimate source of power. (16) In the following years, he altered his stance somewhat; the country needed an immense amount of reconstruction, and that “direct government by the Assembly” could not survive in such an environment. (16) There was a high degree of consensus among the ruling elite about the goals of the society, (15) but he established a single party regime, (5,9) and ruled as a dictator. (3,9) His instrument was the Republican People’s Party, formed on August 9, 1923, to replace the defence-of-rights associations. (15) He frequently went on trips throughout the country to check on the state activities on sight. (12) He gave orders to relevant officials concerning delayed activities. (12) As President, he hosted the heads of state, prime ministers and commanders of foreign countries who paid visits to Turkey. (12) Between October 15th and 20th, 1927, he gave his Great Speech, which narrated the War of Independence and the foundation of the Republic, and on October 29th, 1933, he delivered his Tenth Year Speech. (12) His regime lasted almost without interruption until 1945. (5)

Opposition

In 1925, the population was largely illiterate and disparate. (16) Turkey was in ruins, reconstruction was difficult, poverty was everywhere and people were in pain, which fed separatist violence. (16) Mustafa Kemal embarked upon the reform of his country, his goal being to bring it into the 20th century, but his ambitious program of forced modernization was not accomplished without strain and bloodshed. (15) The revolutionaries faced challenges from the supporters of the old Ottoman regime, and also from the supporters of newer ideologies such as communism and fascism. (16) “Friendship with Russia,” said Atatürk, “is not to adopt their ideology of communism for Turkey.” He declared: “Communism is a social issue. (16) Social conditions, religion, and national traditions of our country confirm the opinion that Russian Communism is not applicable in Turkey.” The abolition of the caliphate and other cultural reforms were met with fierce opposition. (16) The conservative elements were not happy and they launched attacks on the Kemalist reformists. (16) In 1924, while the “Issue of Mosul” was on the table, Sheikh Said began to organize the Sheikh Said Rebellion. (16) Sheikh Said was a wealthy Kurdish tribal chief of a local Naqshbandi order. (16) He emphasized the issue of religion; he not only opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, but also the adoption of civil codes based on Western models, the closure of religious orders, the ban on polygamy, and the new obligatory civil marriage. (16) Sheikh stirred up his followers against the policies of the government, which he considered anti-Islamic. (16) In an effort to restore Islamic law, Sheik’s forces moved through the countryside, seized government offices and marched on the important cities of Elazığ and Diyarbakır. (16) Members of the government saw the Sheikh Said Rebellion as an attempt at a counter-revolution. (16) They urged immediate military action to prevent its spread. (16) The “Law for the Maintenance of Public Order” was passed to deal with the rebellion on 4 March 1925. (16) He closed opposition newspapers and suppressed leftist workers’ organizations, (9) At times he stifled opposition with an authoritarian hand. (9) In June (15) 1926 a plot by several disgruntled politicians (15,16) in the remaining cells of the CUP (27) to assassinate Atatürk was discovered, (15,16) It originated with a former deputy who had opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, (16) and the 13 (15) ringleaders were tried and hanged. (15,27) The pattern of organized opposition, however, was broken. (16) There were other trials and executions, but under Atatürk the country was steadfastly steered toward becoming a modern state with a minimum of repression. (15) As many of his goals were achieved, however, many Turks wished to see a more democratic regime. (15) Atatürk even experimented in 1930 with the creation of an opposition party led by his longtime associate Ali Fethi. (15,16) It succeeded and grew rapidly. (15,16) On 23 December 1930, a chain of violent incidents occurred, starting with the rebellion of Islamic fundamentalists in Menemen, a small town in the Aegean region. (16) and overwhelming success caused Atatürk to squash it. (15) [OR] In November 1930, Ali Fethi Okyar dissolved his own party. (16) Atatürk’s biographer Andrew Mango said: “Between the two wars, democracy could not be sustained in many relatively richer and better-educated societies. (16) Atatürk’s enlightened authoritarianism left a reasonable space for free private lives. (16) More could not have been expected in his lifetime.” (16)

Spirit of Reforms

His 15 year Presidency is a saga of dramatic modernization. (7) ‘The civilized world is far ahead of us,’ he told an audience in October 1926, ‘We have no choice but to catch up.’ (9) With indefatigable determination, (7) banking on the reputation he had gained from his military background, (10) he was responsible for (1,2) many (1,3) sweeping progressive (2,3) reforms and for the modernisation of Turkey. (1,2) It was one of the world’s swiftest and most effective modernization campaigns ever. (11) His program was embodied in the party’s “Six Arrows”: republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism (state-owned and state-operated industrialization aimed at making Turkey self-sufficient as a 20th-century industrialized state), secularism, and revolution. (15) He instituted a rigorous program of political, economic, and cultural reform. (8) He created a new political and legal system (7) similar to those arising from Western civilization, as in Europe or the United States. (6) This amounted to a social and political revolution (3,5) a permanent state of revolution, meaning continuing change in the state and society. (15) Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism. (8)

Five Areas of Reform

Political Reforms

Kemal proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire (5,7) His first key step as the president was to secularise the country from being a Muslim state (10) turning it into a secular, (2,3) industrial (8) nation (2,4) -state. (4,8) On November 1st, 1922, the Caliphate8 and the Sultanate were separated from each other and the sovereignty of the sultans was abolished. (12) Abolishing the sultanate was relatively easy because the survival of the Caliphate at the time satisfied the partisans of the sultanate. (16) By the consensus of the Muslim majority in early centuries, the caliphate was the core political concept of Sunni Islam. (16) The Caliph was the theoretical successor to the prophet Muhammad and spiritual leader of the worldwide Muslim community, (9) Although Turkey was now almost homogeneously Muslim, (9) on March 3rd, 1924, (15,16) He abolished the Caliphate, (7,9) to reform the political system and promote national sovereignty. (10) Its powers (10,16) within Turkey (16) were transferred to the GNA. (10,16) Turkey did not accept the re-establishment of the caliphate and perceived it as an attack to its basic existence. (16) However, elsewhere, there were repercussions for all of Islam. (11,16) Other Muslim nations debated the validity of Turkey’s unilateral abolition of the caliphate as they decided whether they should confirm the Turkish action or appoint a new caliph. (16) A “Caliphate Conference” was held in Cairo in May 1926 and a resolution was passed declaring the caliphate “a necessity in Islam”, but failed to implement this decision. (16) Two other Islamic conferences were held in Mecca (1926) and Jerusalem (1931) (16) but failed to reach a consensus, (11,16) and no new caliph was appointed. (11) Thus, the administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire were broken off. (12) It was the same with all Islamic institutions, (5,9) such as religious courts (9) and schools, (9,10) He removed the constitutional requirement that Islam should be the state religion. (3) He mandated that the call to prayer be in Turkish rather than Arabic. (9) He made Sunday a day of rest instead of Friday. (9) He lifted a ban on alcohol (9) and adopted the Gregorian, calendar in place of the Islamic calendar (5,9) In the years following 1926, Atatürk introduced a radical departure from previous reformations established by the Ottoman Empire. (16) For the first time in history, Islamic law was separated from secular law, and restricted to matters of religion. (16) He stated: We must liberate our concepts of justice, our laws and our legal institutions from the bonds which, even though they are incompatible with the needs of our century, still hold a tight grip on us. (16) On 1 March 1926, the Turkish penal code was passed. (16) It was modelled after the Italian Penal Code. (16) Abolition of the religious courts followed on April 8th. (15) [OR] On 4 October 1926, Islamic courts were closed. (16)

Social Reforms

During Atatürk’s presidency (8,13) between 1926 and 1934 he asserted (13) equal civil and political rights (8,10) for men and women (13) This represented the emancipating of women. (5,7) The president saw women as an essential part of the workforce if Turkey was to become a wealthy modern nation. (11) Ottoman practice discouraged social interaction between men and women in keeping with Islamic practice of sex segregation. (16) Atatürk needed a new civil code to establish his second major step of giving freedom to women. (16) The first part was the education of girls and was established with the unification of education. (16) On 4 October 1926, the new Turkish civil code passed. (16) It was modelled after the Swiss Civil Code. (16) Under the new code, women gained equality with men in such matters as inheritance and divorce. (16) Atatürk did not consider gender a factor in social organization. (16) According to his view, society marched towards its goal with men and women united. (16) He believed that it was scientifically impossible for him to achieve progress and to become civilized if the gender separation continued as in Ottoman times. (16) During a meeting he declaimed: To the women: Win for us the battle of education and you will do yet more for your country than we have been able to do. (16) It is to you that I appeal. (16) To the men: If henceforward the women do not share in the social life of the nation, we shall never attain to our full development. (16) We shall remain irremediably backward, incapable of treating on equal terms with the civilizations of the West. (16) The emancipation of women was encouraged by (15) The emancipation was set in motion by a number of laws. (15) In particular, women were given voting rights (8,9) in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3rd April 1930 and a few years later, (8) in December (15) 1934, full universal suffrage, (8,15) earlier than most other countries in the world. (8) They could vote for parliamentary members and were made eligible to hold parliamentary seats. (15) As a result, women’s emancipation was strengthened by the abolition of polygamy, marriage was made a civil contract, (15) and they could divorce their husbands. (11) Divorce was recognized as a civil action. (15) Turkish women were taught not only child care, dress-making and household management but also skills needed to join the economy outside the home. (16) Turkish women received equal rights to inherit property. (11) A century before, Sultan Mahmud II had begun a series of dress reforms in 1826 as part of the Ottoman Empire’s modernization effort. (16) Kemal carried this idea further. (16) On 25th November 1925 he instituted a Reform of Headgear and Dress. (13) He changed the national dress, (5,7) introducing western forms of dress, (3,5) and prohibiting the wearing of headscarves (9,10) among public sector employees (9) and the wearing of turbans (10) and fez hats. (9,1)) Thereafter Turks wore Western-style headdress. (15) Mustafa Kemal went on a speaking tour of Anatolia during which he wore a European-style hat, setting an example for the Turkish people. (15) In Istanbul and elsewhere there was a run on materials for making hats. (15) They were freed from the obligation to wear the veil. (10) but even though he personally promoted modern dress for women, Atatürk never made specific reference to women’s clothing in the law, as he believed that women would adapt to the new clothing styles of their own free will. (16) He was frequently photographed on public business with his wife Lâtife Uşaklıgil, who covered her head in accordance with Islamic tradition. (16) He was also frequently photographed on public business with women wearing modern Western clothes. (16) But it was Atatürk’s adopted daughters, Sabiha Gökçen and Afet İnan, who provided the real role model for the Turkish women of the future. (16) He wrote: “The religious covering of women will not cause difficulty … (16) This simple style [of headcovering] is not in conflict with the morals and manners of our society.” (16) In the same year, the religious brotherhoods, strongholds of conservatism, were outlawed. (15) He said: ‘The Turkish republic cannot be a country of sheiks, dervishes, and disciples’. (16) and he closed mausoleums and dervish lodges on 30th November 1925. (13) He abolished titles and by-names (26 November 1934) and adopted the international calendar, hours and measurements (1925 – 1931). (13)

Legal Reforms

Between 1924 and 1937 (13) Kemal abolished (9,13) the ministry of (9) canon law (9,13) and pious foundations. (9) Almost overnight the whole system of Islamic law was discarded. (15) In 1926, he abolished the Islamic courts and (11) instituted secular civil law throughout Turkey (11,13) by adoption of Turkish Civil Code (13) [OR] Western legal codes (5,7) and other laws. (13) From February to June 1926 the Swiss civil code, the Italian penal code, and the German commercial code were adopted wholesale. (15)

Reforms in the fields of education and culture

His educational reform (3,7) known as the Unification of education, dated 3rd March 1924.(13) The religious schools were dismantled, (15) [OR] Ataturk’s reforms did not see the end of religious schools in Turkey; they were moved to higher education until later governments restored them to their former position in secondary after Atatürk’s death. (16) Primary education was made free, (8,10) secular (7,10) and compulsory, opening thousands of new schools (8,10) for both girls and boys (11) all over the country. (8,10) In the summer of 1924, Atatürk invited American educational reformer John Dewey to Ankara to advise him on how to reform Turkish education. (16) From now on what mattered at school was science and education; Islam was concentrated in mosques and religious places. (16) The new schools came under the governance of the Ministry of National Education. (10) A reform of truly revolutionary proportions took place (15) on 1st (13) November 1928 (13,15) when he replaced Arabic (3,5) [OR] Ottoman Turkish script (8,9) for written Turkish (11) (in which the Ottoman Turkish language had been written for centuries) (15) with the Latin alphabet. (3,5) When he asked the experts how long it would take, in their professional opinion, to implement the new alphabet into the Turkish language, most of the professors and linguists said between three and five years. (16) Atatürk was said to have scoffed and openly stated, “We shall do it in three to five months”. (16) Literacy rates improved (9,15) from 10.6% in 1927 to 22.4% in 1940. (16) Turkey achieved one of the highest literacy rates in the Middle East. (15) Once again Mustafa Kemal went into the countryside, and with chalk and a blackboard he demonstrated the new alphabet to the Turkish people and explained how the letters should be pronounced. (15) Education benefited from this reform, as the youth of Turkey, cut off from the past with its emphasis on religion, were encouraged to take advantage of new educational opportunities that gave access to the Western scientific and humanistic traditions. (15) Atatürk’s reforms on education made education much more accessible: between 1923 and 1938, the number of students attending primary schools increased by 224% from 342,000 to 765,000, the number of students attending middle schools increased by 12.5 times, from around 6,000 to 74,000 and the number of students attending high schools increased by almost 17 times, from 1,200 to 21,000. (16) He promoted the arts (7,13) and sciences. (7) In 1927, the State Art and Sculpture Museum (Turkish: Ankara Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) opened its doors. (16) The museum highlighted sculpture, which was little practised in Turkey owing to the Islamic tradition of avoiding idolatry. (16) Atatürk believed that “culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic,” and described modern Turkey’s ideological thrust as “a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal.” (16) He included both his own nation’s creative legacy and what he saw as the admirable values of global civilization. (16) He established Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931 – 1932) by his Regulation of university education. (31st May 1933) (16)

Surnames

By the Law on family names of 21st June (13) [OR] on November 24th, (12,13) 1934 (7,12) [OR] In 1935, (5) surnames were introduced in Turkey. (5,7) He was given (5,7) by parliament (7,8) [OR] He required all Turks to choose a surname, (9) and took (6,9) the name Atatürk, meaning (5,6) grandfather’ or ‘ancestor (11) [OR] ‘Father of (5,6) the Turks’. (5,7) [OR] All Turks (6) [OR]Father Turk’. (9) [OR] ‘Father of Turks’. (12,13) İsmet assumed the surname İnönü in memory of his two important victories on that river. (15) The Surname law forbade certain surnames that contained connotations of foreign cultures, nations, tribes, and religions. (16) As a result, many ethnic Armenians, Greeks, and Kurds were forced to adopt last names of Turkish rendition. (16) Names ending with “yan, of, ef , viç, is, dis , poulos, aki, zade, shvili, madumu, veled, bin” (names that denote non-Turkish origins) could not be registered and were replaced by “-oğlu.” (16)

Economic Reforms

He helped develop small and large scale businesses. (10) He abolished the tithe (13) During the Great Depression, he established the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, the main purpose of which was to control exchange rates. (10) In the period 1933-1937 (13) he supervised a first and second five year economic plan. (10,13) He advanced agriculture (7,13) by the establishment of model farms. (13) He encouraged industry. (7,9) by establishing industrial facilities, and passing a law for incentives for the Industry. (13) He developed transportation networks. (13) Despite his efforts, the gap between Atatürk’s goals and the achievements of the socio-political structure of the country was not closed. (16)

Turkicisation

His government carried out a policy of Turkicisation trying to create a homogeneous and unified nation. (8) Even before he became president, Greece agreed to send some 380,000 Muslims to Turkey in exchange for over 1 million Greek Orthodox practitioners. (9) This was achieved through a treaty of friendship signed on December 30, 1930. (15) The pre-Islamic culture of the Turks became the subject of extensive research, and particular emphasis was laid upon Turkish culture widespread before the Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. (16) He instigated study of Anatolian civilizations—Phrygians and Lydians, Sumerians and Hittites. (16) To attract current public attention to past cultures, he personally named the “Sümerbank” (1932) after the Sumerians and the “Etibank” (1935) after the Hittites. (16) He also stressed the folk arts of the countryside as a wellspring of Turkish creativity. (16) Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pressured to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities had to be changed to Turkish renditions. (8) Minority populations were exchanged on both sides, borders were set, and military problems such as naval equality in the eastern Mediterranean were ironed out. (15) The forced emigration of Armenians continued. (9)The 1934 Resettlement Law (also known as the Law no. 2510) was a policy adopted by the Turkish government which set forth the basic principles of immigration. (16) The law, however, is regarded by some as a policy of assimilation of non-Turkish minorities through a forced and collective resettlement. (16) He bottled up any attempts at Kurdish autonomy. (9) In February 1925 the Kurds of southwestern Anatolia raised the banner of revolt in the name of Islam. (15) It took two months to put the revolt down; its leader Şeyh Said was then hanged. (15)

Foreign Policy

After having settled Turkey firmly within its national borders and set it on the path of modernization, Atatürk sought to develop his country’s foreign policy in similar fashion. (15) His foreign policy rested on his motto of ‘peace at home and peace in the world’. (8,10) He pursued a policy of neutrality, establishing friendly relations with Turkey’s neighbours. (5) During his presidency, he resolved all foreign issues in a peaceful manner, not once using military might to solve problems. (10) First and foremost, he decided that Turkey would not pursue any irredentist claims except for the eventual incorporation of the Alexandretta9 region, which he felt was included within the boundaries set by the National Pact. (15) Atatürk also sought reconciliation with Greece. (15,16)

Iraq

In 1923, Atatürk tried to persuade the GNA that accepting the arbitration of the League of Nations at the Treaty of Lausanne over Mosul did not mean relinquishing Mosul, but rather waiting for a time when Turkey might be stronger. (16) The artificially drawn border had an unsettling effect on the population on both sides. (16) Later, it was claimed that Turkey began where the oil ends, as the border was drawn by the British geophysicists based on the oil reserves. (16) Atatürk did not want this separation. (16) The British Foreign Secretary attempted to disclaim any existence of oil in the Mosul area. (16) On 23 January 1923, Lord Curzon argued that the existence of oil was no more than hypothetical. (16) However, according to Armstrong, “England wanted oil: Mosul and Kurds were the key.” (16) He settled matters with Great Britain in a treaty signed on June 5, 1926. (15) It called for Turkey to renounce its claims to Mosul in return for a 10 percent interest in the oil produced there. (15)

Iran

Atatürk and Reza Shah had a common approach regarding British imperialism and its influence in their region, creating a slow but continuous rapprochement between Ankara and Tehran. (16) Both governments sent diplomatic missions and messages of friendship to each other during the Turkish War of Independence. (16) The policy of the Ankara government in this period was to give moral support in order to assure Iranian independence and territorial integrity. (16) The relations were strained after the abolishment of the Caliphate. (16) Iran’s Shi’a clergy did not accept Kemal’s position. (16) Iranian religious power centres perceived the real motive behind Atatürk’s reforms was to undermine the power of the clergy. (16) By the mid-1930s, Reza Shah’s efforts had upset the clergy throughout Iran, thus widening the gap between religion and government. (16) Atatürk feared the occupation and dismemberment of Iran as a multi-ethnic/multi-tribal society by Russia or Great Britain. (16) By the Saadabad Pact of 1937 the signatories undertook to preserve their common frontiers, to consult together in all matters of common interest and to commit no aggression against one another’s territory. (16) The treaty united the Afghan king’s call for greater Oriental-Middle Eastern cooperation, Reza Shah’s goal in securing relations with Turkey that would help Iran free itself from Soviet and British influence, and Atatürk’s foreign policy of securing stability in the region. (16) [OR]

Britain

During the second half of the 1930s, Atatürk tried to establish a closer relationship with Britain and other major western powers, which caused displeasure on the part of the Soviets. (16) Turkish Prime-Minister İsmet İnönü was very conscious of foreign policy issues. (16) During the second half of the 1930s, the risks of a pro-British policy put Inonu and Ataturk at odds. (16)

Russia

The second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Volume 20, 1953) was unequivocally critical of Kemal’s policies in the last years of his rule, calling his domestic policies “anti-popular” and his foreign course as aimed at rapprochement with the “imperialist powers.” (16)

The Straits:

In March 1936, Hitler’s reoccupation of the Rhineland gave Atatürk the opportunity to resume full control over the Straits. (16) “The situation in Europe”, he declared “is highly appropriate for such a move. (16) We shall certainly achieve it”. (16)

Italy

The most important factor in driving Turkish foreign policy from the mid-1930s onwards was the fear of Italy. (16) Benito Mussolini had frequently proclaimed his intention to make the entire Mediterranean Mare Nostrum. (16) Both the Turks and the various Balkan states felt threatened by Italian ambitions. (16) The Balkan Pact of 1937 was negotiated by Atatürk with Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia. (16) This mutual-defence agreement intended to guarantee the signatories’ territorial integrity and political independence against attack by another Balkan state such as Bulgaria or Albania. (16) It countered the increasingly aggressive foreign policy of fascist Italy and the effect of a potential Bulgarian alignment with Nazi Germany. (16) Atatürk thought of the Balkan Pact as a medium of balance in the relations with the European countries. (16) He was particularly anxious to establish a region of security and alliances in the west of Turkey and in Balkan Europe, which would extend as far as Dobruja. (16) An effect of the Balkan Pact was to deter Mussolini from aggressions in the Eastern Mediterranean. (16) The Balkan Pact turned out to be ineffective for reasons that were beyond Atatürk’s control. (16) What he wanted to prevent with the Balkan Pact was realized by Bulgaria’s attempt to put the Dobruja issue into the agenda after a series of international events ending with the Italian invasion of Albania on 7 April 1939. (16) These conflicts spread rapidly, triggering World War II. (16) The goal of Atatürk, to protect southeast Europe, failed with the dissolution of the pact. (16)

Death and Posthumous

The Turkish government bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal several high-profile decorations such as Fifth Class Knight Order of the Medjidie, Silver Imtiyaz Medal, Silver Liakat Medal, Golden Liakat Medal, Second Class Knight Order of Osmanieh, Second Class Knight Order of the Medjidie, Golden Imtiyaz Medal, First Class Knight Order of the Medjidie, Gallipoli Star, Medal of Independence and Murassa Order Other countries that honoured him include France’s National Order of the Legion of Honour, Bulgaria’ Commander Grand Cross Order Of Saint Alexander, Germany’s 1st and 2nd Class Iron Cross, Prussia’s 1st Class Order of the Crown Prussia, Afghanistan’s Aluyulala Order of Kingdom of…? (10) In his later years Atatürk grew more remote from the Turkish people. (15) He had the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, formerly a main residence of the sultans, refurbished and spent more time there. (15) Always a heavy drinker (9,15) (he drank half a litre of rakı a day (16)) who ate little, (15) he began to decline in health, (10,15) starting 1937. (10) Too late, (15) he was diagnosed with cirrhosis of liver, (10,11) due to excessive alcohol consumption: (11) He suffered from serious illness in 1938 while on a trip to Yalova. (10) He bore the pain of (15) an illness of the last few months of his life (7,15) with great character and dignity. (15) he died (1,2) at the age of 57 (8,10) at 9:05 a.m. (12,15) on November 10th (2,4) 1938, (1,2) in his bedroom (9) at the Dolmabahçe Palace (2,8), in Istanbul, Turkey. (2,9), His funeral Mustafa Kemal was honoured with a state funeral (8,10) attended by representatives from 17 countries. (10) It was a moment of sorrow (10,15) and pride for Turkey (10) There were enormous outpourings of grief from the Turkish people. (15) His deceased body was brought (12,15) with a ceremony (12) through Istanbul and from there to Ankara (15) to its temporary place of rest at the (12,15) Ethnography Museum of Ankara (10,12) on November 21st 1938. (12) 15 years later, on November 10th, 1953, he was buried (10,12) in a 42-ton sarcophagus (10) with a magnificent ceremony (12) in the Anıtkabir mausoleum (10,12) that overlooks Ankara. (10,15) There is a museum devoted to his memory. (15) He was replaced by İsmet İnönü, prime minister during most of Atatürk’s rule (8,9) who continued his policies of secularization and westernization. (9) His iconic mausoleum, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honour of his famous expression ‘Peace at Home, Peace in the World’. (8) In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk’s birth, his memory was honoured by the UN and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as ‘the leader of the first struggle given against colonialism and imperialism’ and a ‘remarkable promoter of the sense of understanding between peoples and durable peace between the nations of the world and that he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation between peoples without distinction’. (8) Visitors to Turkey are often surprised by (6) the importance given to Atatürk in present-day Turkey. (6,9) He is omnipresent. (15) His portrait is in every home and place of business and on the postage and bank notes. (15) His words are chiselled on important buildings. (15) Statues of him abound. (15) Turkish politicians, regardless of party affiliation, claim to be the inheritors of Atatürk’s mantle, but none has matched his breadth of vision, dedication, and selflessness. (15) Atatürk is commemorated by many memorials throughout Turkey and numerous countries all over the world, where place names are named in honour of him. (8) Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk’s name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. (8) Few countries have such a person in their history. (6) He was the national liberator and the Father of modern Turkey. (7) He inspired many later leaders, like Gamal Abdel Nasser and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. (6) His six principles still serve today as a sign post for establishing a democratic government: these were

  1. Republicanism: Replacing the hereditary monarchy with an elected parliament.

  2. Nationalism: Citizens working together with pride in a common interest.

  3. Secularism: Separating religion from government.

  4. Populism: The equality of all citizens before the law.

  5. Reformism: A constant process of development and modernisation.

  6. Etatism: An economic system combining private enterprise with government-funded monopolies of large industries

Insulting Atatürk’s memory is a crime in Turkey. (9,16) In 2007, YouTube, Geocities, and several blogger webpages were blocked by a Turkish court due to the violation of this law. (16) The YouTube ban in the country lasted for 30 months, in retaliation for four videos on Atatürk. (16) These videos alleged that Atatürk was a Freemason, and was a homosexual, citing a book printed in Belgium on this subject that is currently banned in Turkey. (16) In the last week of October 2010, a German company, following a request from the Turkish Internet Board, exploited YouTube automatic copyright-enforcement mechanism to take down the videos. (16) On 30th October, shortly after the removal, a court lifted the ban. (16) But a few days later, Google concluded that the videos did not infringe copyright and restored them on YouTube. (16) In 2010, the French-based NGO Reporters Without Borders objected to the Turkish laws to protect the memory of Kemal Atatürk, saying they are in contradiction with the current European Union standards of freedom of speech in news media. (16) Islam has re-emerged in recent years as a social and political force. (9)

Next

FRESCI

Foreign and Military

Uniquely successful Ottoman military career; Multinational Empire in dissolution; Replaced Sevres by Lausanne; Gallipoli, Sakarya.

Religion and Ideas

Abolished Caliphate & dervishes; Western humanist ideas prioritised over Islam – sculpture; Turkicisation; Conservative opposition repressed with hangings.

Economic & Financial

Basic lack of raw materials; efforts to maximise cotton production; Central banking and planning;

Social & Cultural

Names; hats; alphabet; education; position of women

Constitutional & Legal

Use of GNA; Democratic constitution but despotic reality; opposition party allowed then repressed; sharia restricted to religion. Western law codes applied.

Individual and Random

‘perfect’; opportunities arise out of dissolution of Ottoman System; Armenian Massacres? visit to Germany; Smyrna; affairs; marriage then divorce; alcoholism; gonorrhoea; cirrhosis; homosexual; freemason; recluse. Fall out with Kâzim before Sakarya.

Points of View

Law preventing criticism; Secular/Muslim; Smyrna and Armenian suspicions: Boris Johnson’s ancestor Ali Kemal, who had written against the Armenian Massacres, was associated with the Grand Vizier’s government which fell, and was then murdered by Kemalist forces and his corpse mockingly given an Armenian name.

Appendix I: Ali Kemal additional biographical notes 1909-1912

[Of interest because he was the great grandfather of British Prime minister Boris Johnson]

Ali_Kemal was unanimously adopted as the candidate to represent the parliamentary constituency of Stambul at a meeting of the Liberal Union on 9 March 1909. (23) After the murder of the editor-in-chief of the Serbestî newspaper, Hasan Fehmi, in April 1909, Ali_Kemal stated that he had warned Ismail Qemali and Rifsat, the assistant editor of Serbestî that they had been condemned by extremists in Salonica. (23) A media storm between the liberal paper İkdam and the conservative Tanin followed, with İkdam accusing Ahmet Rıza Bey of having been in favour of enlightened absolutism, and Tanin, the organ of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) accusing the Liberal Union of being a subversive body, conspiring with Armenians. (23) At that time Ali_Kemal accused Rahmi Bey and Dr Nazım Bey of the Committee of Union and Progress of proposing his murder. (23) These events became known as the 31 March Incident and were followed by the countercoup of 1909, an effort to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire and replace it with an autocracy under Sultan Abdul Hamid II. (23) Soldiers from Salonica deposed Abdul Hamid on 27 April 1909 and his brother Reshad Efendi was proclaimed as Sultan Mehmed V. (23) Ali_Kemal fled to exile in England, where in late 1909, his wife Winifred gave birth to a son, Osman Wilfred Ali_Kemal, at Bournemouth. (23) Shortly after giving birth his wife died of puerperal fever. (23) They already had a daughter named Selma. (23) Ali_Kemal stayed with his mother-in-law Margaret Brun (née Johnson) and with his children, first in Christchurch, near Bournemouth, and then in Wimbledon, London until 1912, when he returned to the Ottoman Empire, soon marrying again. (23)

Appendix II: Kemal, the Armenian Massacres and Smyrna

A law prohibits criticism of Mustafa Kemal in Turkey (9,16) If there had been nothing much to criticise in his life, such a prohibition would not have been necessary. On p. 27 I describe Google’s challenge to this law. I do not see how he can avoid responsibility for either.

Armenian Massacre:

Figure 2: The Grey areas show where the Genocide is not recognised

  • Enver and Talaat were the prime movers of the Massacre, (22) and Mustafa Kemal has not been linked to the perpetration of the genocide.” (9) BUT

  • Mustafa Kemal took command of a Turkish Army on the Russian front at Diyarbakır (12) during 1916. Massacres are alleged to have been going on all round him, as Figure 3 shows. They were known to the Germans and the Americans: on October 3rd, 1917: Count Wolff-Metternich left his post as ambassador to Turkey, recalled by the German General Staff at the request of Enver because he had protested against the Armenian massacres. (22)

Figure 3: Map showing alleged centres of the genocide, roughly centred on Diyabakir, where Mustafa Kemal was

  • and continued round Aleppo when he was moved there, though the local civilian commander in that area committed suicide rather than face an atrocity trial.

Figure 4 Armenians killed at Aleppo after the Mudros Armistice, October 1918

  • With secret instructions from the Ankara government to proceed with the physical elimination of Armenia, General Kiazim Karabekir seized half the territories of Armenia in November 1920’ – https://www.armenian-genocide.org/kemal.html

  • Dec 1919 Francois Georges-Picot, former French High Commissioner in Syria, and Mustafa Kemal hold a secret meeting in Sivas concerning the status of Cilicia. Kemal demands that the French Army including the Armenian volunteer forces serving with it be withdrawn. Picot agrees, leaving defenceless the Armenian survivors in Cilicia, who had returned home from their ordeals in the desert. https://www.armenian-genocide.org/1919.html

If you google Armenian massacre, pictures of Turks massacred by Armenians come up:

Figure 5 Turks killed by Armenians in Diyarbakir in 1915

Smyrna

  • “…the Greeks, who had wreaked havoc on the Turkish population during their march to within 50 miles of Ankara”. (9)

  • the Greeks had practiced scorched earth tactics during their retreat” (19)

  • Turkish forces with Mustafa Kemal at the head (9,16,20) [OR] led by Mürsel Pasha and then Nureddin Pasha, General of the Turkish First Army, (19) entered the town…”
  • ‘Turkish revenge awaited’ (19)
  • On 10th September 1922, Atatürk sent a telegram to the League of Nations saying that the Turkish population was ‘so worked up that the Ankara Government would not be responsible for massacres.’ (16)
  • A fire soon broke out in Smyrna (9) [OR] parts of Smyrna were deliberately set on fire (19) which, along with looting and rampaging Turkish soldiers, claimed the lives of thousands of Greek and Armenian residents.” (9)

  • 21 Allied ships anchored off Smyrna with “orders of maintaining neutrality in the event that violence would break out between the Turks and the Christians. (19)

Figure 6: Smyrna in flames with Allied warship in foreground

Bibliography

Note that 2 and 8 overlap suspiciously. Not allowing corroboration any more. Very heavy overlap in style and content between 12, 13 and 14.

  1. Wiki Chanak
  2. Military Wiki Chanak
  3. http://bulgariaanalytica.org/en/2017/09/23/the-massacre-smyrna/
  4. https://www.greecetravel.com/smyrna/
  5. http://www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/vahdettin/
  6. https://www.armenian-genocide.org.html In this font

  7. Wikipedia on Boris Johnson’s Ancestor Ali Kemal

  8. Damit Ferid Grand Vizier
  9. Ahmet Tevfik Grand Vizier
  10. Ittihads

1 Wikipedia appears not to know that his father had died some years before.

2 In other words he resisted attempts to restore the Sultan and undo the constitutional reforms of the Young Turks, thus acting consistently with his own subsequent reform programme.

3 Sic? Anafartalar

4 When Mustafa Kemal had been in post three months

5 When he was still in command

6 The Treaty being in August

7 Named after his victory over the Greeks

8 since the early 16th century, the Ottoman sultans had laid claim to the title of caliph of the Muslims (15)

9 Now called Iskenderun

Next Contents

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Contents

Contents

General

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as he is commonly known, (2,4) was a Turkish (1,2) nationalist and military leader (1,4) general (1) [OR] Field Marshal (2,8) and revolutionary (2,8) statesman, (1,2) and author. (8)

Early Life

Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa (2,6) Kemal Ataturk was born (1,2) probably in the spring (4,7) [OR] May 19th, (4,11) in 1881, (1,2) in a 3-story pink house (12) on Islahane (12) Islahhane (13) Street, (12,13) in the Kocakasım (12,13) ward (13) [OR] District of (16) Salonica, (1,2) [OR] Salonika (now Thessaloniki), (5,6) now in (7,11) Greece, (3,7) in the Salonica Vilayet, (2) of what was then (5,6) a thriving port of (15) the Ottoman Empire. (2,4) Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was born just as Mustafa to (10) Ali Rıza Efendi and (4,6) Zubeyde (4,7) [OR] Zübeyde (6,12) Hanim. (4,6) His family was precariously (16) middle-class, Turkish-speaking and (9,16) Albanian (11,16) Muslim. (9,16) Due to the large Jewish community of Thessaloniki in the Ottoman period, many of the Islamist opponents who are disturbed by his reforms claimed that Atatürk had Dönmeh ancestors, that is Jews converted to Islam. (16) His father Ali Riza Efendi may have been ethnically Albanian, though some sources state that (11) his family was made up of nomads from the Konya region of Turkey. (11,12) His paternal grandfather, Hafız Ahmet Efendi, was from the Kocacık Yörüks (a Turkish nomadic tribe), who had emigrated from Konya and Aydın and settled in Macedonia during the 14th and 15th centuries. (12) Ali was a minor official (5,10) who served as an officer, (12,14) with the rank of lieutenant (15) in the local militia (12,15) [OR] military (14) during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, indicating that his origins were within the Ottoman ruling class, if only marginally. (15) At Mustafa’s birth, his father Ali Riza hung his sword over his son’s cradle, dedicating him to military service. (15) In civilian life he was a pious (14) title-deed (10) estate (12) clerk (10,12) and later a timber merchant. (5,10) He married Zübeyde Hanım in 1871. (12) Zübeyde was a devout and strong-willed (7) blue-eyed, Turkish or possibly Macedonian (11) housewife. (10) Unusually for that time she could read and write. (11) She raised Mustafa (7) [OR] Mustafa (2,6) and his sister. (7) The couple had six children (11,12) Four of Atatürk’s five siblings died at an early age and (11,12) only Mustafa and his sister Makbule Atadan survived to adulthood. (11,12) [OR], he was the only child of the couple who survived past childhood. (10) Makbule died in 1956. (12)

Education

Zubeyde Hanim wanted her son to study religion, (11) so when Mustafa reached school age (12) he was first enrolled in a traditional religious school, (7,11) the Hafız Efendi local primary school (12) which he attended ‘reluctantly’. (11) [OR] Ali Riza saw to it that his son’s earliest education was carried out in a modern secular school, rather than in the religious school his mother would have preferred. (15) He grew up with a more secular turn of mind (11) and soon switched to a modern school (7) [OR] he attended a series of military schools. (9) His father later allowed him to (11) [OR] upon his father’s request (12) he later switched to Şemsi Efendi School (11,12) a secular private school. (11) In this way Ali Riza set his son on the path of modernization. (15) This was something for which Mustafa always felt indebted to his father. (15) In 1888 (12) when Mustafa was 7, (11) his father died. (11,12) Zübeyde Hanım moved to her step-brother’s (15) Rapla (12) farm outside Salonika. (15) Concerned that Mustafa might grow up uneducated, she sent him (15) back to Salonika, (12,15) where he registered at the Salonika Mülkiye Rüştiye (secondary school) (12,13) [OR] Junior High School for Civil Servants, (14) that would have prepared him for a bureaucratic career (15) [OR] to learn a trade. (16) After a short time in 1893, he (14) transferred to the military Rüştiye. (13) [OR] Junior High School. (14) Mustafa became enamoured of the uniforms worn by the military cadets in his neighbourhood. (15) He determined to enter upon a military career. (15) In 1893, when Atatürk was 12, he was sent to (5,7) [OR] decided, without consulting his mother (11) [OR] his parents1 (16) that he would, (11) against his mother’s wishes, (15) take the entrance exam for a (11,15) military (5,7) high (7,11) school, (5,7) the Monastir (11,14) [OR] Manastır (Bitola) (12) Military (11,12) High (7,11) [OR] Middle (12) School. (11,12) [OR] the Salonica Military School (Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi) in 1893. (16) He was a good student (7,9) and his mathematics teacher (7,10) Captain Üsküplü (16) Mustafa (13,16) Efendi (13) gave him (7,10) [OR] He took (6,16) the second name Kemal (meaning perfection (7,10) [OR] ‘mature and perfect’ (12) in recognition of young Mustafa’s superior achievement. (7,10) He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal. (7,10) In 1896 (12,13) [OR] 1895 (15) he went to the Monastir (14) [OR] Manastır (13) (now Bitola, North Macedonia) (15) Military School. (12,13) He made several new friends, including Ali Fethi (Okyar), who would later join him in the creation and development of the Turkish republic. (15) On 14th (16) March (15,16) 1899 he went to the Ottoman (11,12) Military Academy (5,7) in the neighbourhood of Pangaltı within the Şişli district of the Ottoman capital (16) of Istanbul. (5,7) He enjoyed the freedom and sophistication of the city, to which he was introduced by his new friend and classmate Ali Fuat (Cebesoy). (15) There was a good deal of political dissent in the air at the War College, directed against the despotism of Sultan Abdülhamid II. (15) Mustafa Kemal remained aloof from it until his third year, when he became involved in the production of a clandestine newspaper. (15) His activities were uncovered, but he was allowed to complete the course, (15) graduating with the rank of (12,13) second (15) lieutenant in 1902 (12,13) and ranking in the top 10 of his class of more than 450 students. (15) He went on to attend the Army War (12) [OR] General Staff (15) College, (12,15) graduating on (5,7) January (11,12) 11th (12,13) 1905 (5,7) with the rank of Staff Captain (7,10) [OR] captain. (11,12) [OR] major, (13) and ranking fifth out of a class of 57; he was one of the empire’s leading young officers. (15)

Military Service

Damascus

Mustafa Kemal’s career almost ended soon after his graduation when it was discovered that he and several friends were meeting to read about and discuss political abuses within the empire. (15) A government spy infiltrated their group and informed on them. (15) He was arrested by the police for his anti-monarchist activities. (16) A cloud of suspicion hung over their heads that was not to be lifted for years. (15) The group was broken up and its members assigned to remote areas of the empire. (15) Mustafa was confined for several months he was released only with the support of Rıza Pasha, his former school director. (16) Between 1905 and 1907, (12) he was stationed in Syria and Palestine for a few years. (9) He served (12) as an army officer (6,7) in the Fifth Army based in Damascus. (10,11) He was in the same company as Ali Fuat (15,16) (Cebesoy) and Lütfi Müfit (Özdeş). (16) He was angered by the way corrupt officials were treating the local people. (15) Becoming involved again in antigovernment activities (15,16) He joined [OR] helped found (15) a short-lived secret group (15,16) of reformist officers led by a merchant Mustafa Elvan (16) called the Society for Fatherland and Freedom. (15) [OR] Motherland and Liberty”. (16)

Macedonia

Nevertheless, in September (15) [OR] 20th June (16) 1907 (15,16) Mustafa Kemal was declared loyal and (15) after being promoted to Senior Captain (10,12) [OR] ‘Kolağası’ (13,16) (senior major) (13) [OR] adjutant major, (14) on 13 October (16) 1907, he was assigned (12,14) to the headquarters of (16) the 3rd Army (12,14) in Bitola (Manastır) (11,12) [OR] Monastery (14) in the Republic of Macedonia. (11) [OR] reassigned to Salonika, [OR] Salonica (9) which was awash with subversive activity. (15), While continuing his service (10) Mustafa Kemal joined the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) (15,16) with membership number 322. (16) The CUP had ties to the nationalist and reformist Young Turk movement. (10,15) although in later years he became known for his opposition to, and frequent criticism of, the policies pursued by the CUP leadership. (16) On 22 June 1908, (16) he was appointed the Inspector of the Ottoman Railways in Eastern Rumelia. (10,16)

The Young Turks

In July 1908 (15,23) an insurrection broke out in Macedonia. (15) A revolutionary movement of the intellectuals, (10) the so-called Young Turk Revolution of 1908 (9,15) had successfully seized power from Sultan Abdulhamid II and established the constitutional monarchy, (9,10) Kemal played a role in this Revolution. (16) So did Boris Johnson’s great grandfather Ali, also known as ‘Kemal’. Ali_Kemal had acquired strong liberal democratic convictions, which caused him to be exiled from the Ottoman Empire under Abdul Hamid II, but immediately after the end of the Sultan’s personal rule in July 1908, he became one of the most prominent figures in Ottoman journalistic and political life. (23) Because of his opposition to the Young Turks who had made the revolution, he spent most of the following decade in opposition. (23) He was at one time editor of the liberal İkdam newspaper and a leading member of the Liberal Union. (23) In The Times dated 9 March 1909, on speculating that he would contest the seat of the late Minister of Justice Refik Bey, Ali_Kemal was described as amongst the “leading men of letters in Turkey, an excellent speaker, and personally popular”. (23) The sultan was forced to reinstate the constitution of 1876, which limited his powers and reestablished a representative government. (15) The hero of this “Young Turk Revolution” was Enver (Enver Paşa), who later became Mustafa Kemal’s greatest rival; the two men came to dislike each other thoroughly. (15) In 1909 two elements within the revolutionary movement came to the fore. (15) One group favoured decentralization, with harmony and cooperation between the Muslims and the non-Muslims. (15) The other, the dominant antigovernment group, was the Committee for Union and Progress, advocated centralization and Turkish control. (15) An insurrection spearheaded by reactionary troops broke out on the night of April 12–13, 1909. (15) The revolution that had restored the constitution in 1908 was in danger. (15) Military officers and troops from Salonika, among whom Enver played a leading role, marched on Istanbul. (15) They arrived at the capital on April 23rd, and by the next day they had the situation well in hand. (15) The Committee for Union and Progress took control and forced Abdülhamid II to abdicate. (15) Enver was thus in the ascendancy. (15) Mustafa Kemal felt that the military, having gained its political ends, should refrain from interfering in politics. (15,16) He urged those officers who wanted political careers to resign their commissions. (15) This served only to increase the hostility of Enver and other Committee for Union and Progress leaders toward him. (15) Mustafa Kemal turned his attention from politics to military matters. (15) He translated German infantry training manuals into Turkish. (15) From his staff position he criticized the state of the army’s training. (15) His reputation among serious military officers was growing. (15) This activity also brought him into contact with many of the rising young officers. (15) A feeling of mutual respect developed between Mustafa Kemal and some of these officers, who were later to flock to his support in the creation of the Turkish nation. (15)

The Action Army

He led the Turkish nationalist movement from 1909. (1) For a period of about 9 years from 1909 to 1918, (10) the hard-drinking Mustafa Kemal (9) held a number of posts in the Ottoman army. (9,10) In April 1909 in İstanbul, a group of soldiers began a counter-revolution known as the 31st March Incident. (16) Atatürk was instrumental in suppressing the revolt. (16) On April 19th, 1909, he was the Chief of Staff in the Action Army (12,13) the ‘Special Troops’ (Hareket Ordusu) (13) which entered Istanbul to quell the March 31st Incident2. (12,13) He was proposing depoliticization in the army, a proposal which was (16) disliked by the leaders of the CUP. (15,16) so he was transferred to field command (15,16) in the Tripolitania Vilayet (present Libya, then an Ottoman territory) under the pretext of suppressing a tribal rebellion towards the end of 1908. (16) According to Mikush however, he volunteered for this mission. (16) He suppressed the revolt and returned to İstanbul in January 1909. (16) In 1910 he was called to the Ottoman provinces in Albania. (16) he fought to suppress (11) an Albanian uprising in Kosovo. (11,16) [OR] led by Isa Boletini. (16) In 1910 he met with Eqerem Vlora the Albanian lord, politician, writer, and one of the delegates of the Albanian Declaration of Independence. (16) Later, in the autumn of (16) 1910 (12,16) he was sent to observe French army maneuvers in Picardy. (12,15) Although consistently denied promotion, Mustafa Kemal did not lose faith in himself. (15) In 1911, he worked (12,16) for a short time (16) at Ottoman General Staff (12) [OR] Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) (16) in Istanbul. (12,16)

Libya

In 1911, (5,10) and 1912 (9,10) he served against the Italians in Libya. (5,9) His rising reputation as a military man took off. (11) The Italo-Turkish War arose from a 1902 agreement between Italy and France over dividing Ottoman lands in North Africa. (11) The Ottoman Empire was known at that time as the ‘sick man of Europe,’ so other European powers were deciding how to share the spoils of its collapse long before the event actually took place. (11) France promised Italy control of Libya, then comprised of three Ottoman provinces, in return for non-interference in Morocco. (11) Italy launched an attack (11,12) with a massive 150,000-man army (11,16) against Ottoman Libya (11,15) [OR] Tripoli (12) in September 1911. (11) Many of the Ottoman troops in Libya had been sent to the Ottoman province of Yemen in order to put down the rebellion there, so the Ottoman government was caught with inadequate resources to counter the Italians in Libya, and the British government, which controlled the Ottoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan, did not allow sending additional Ottoman troops to Libya through Egypt. (16) Atatürk was one of the Ottoman commanders sent to repel this invasion with only 8,000 regular (11,16) Turkish (16) troops, plus 20,000 local Arab and Bedouin militia members, (11,16) and he went there immediately to fight. (15) The Ottoman soldiers like Atatürk went to Libya either dressed as Arabs (risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egypt) or through very few available ferries (the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively controlled the sea routes to Tripoli). (16) Mustafa Kemal took up duties with a group of comrades in the Tobruk and Darnah (12) [OR] Derne (13) [OR] Derna (16) regions. (12) He was key to the December (11,12) 22nd (12,16) 1911 Ottoman victory in the Battle of Tobruk (11,12) in which 200 Turkish and Arab fighters held off 2,000 Italians and drove them back from the city of Tobruk. (11) During the Battle of Derna on 16–17 January 1912, while Atatürk was assaulting the Italian-controlled fortress of Kasr-ı Harun, two Italian planes dropped bombs on the Ottoman forces and a piece of limestone from a damaged building’s rubble entered Atatürk’s left eye; which caused a permanent damage on his left eye’s tissue, but not total loss of sight. (16) He received medical treatment for nearly a month; he attempted to leave the Red Crescent’s health facilities after only two weeks, but when his eye’s situation worsened, he had to return and resume treatment. (16) Malaria and (15) this trouble with his eye (15,16) required him to leave the front for treatment in Vienna. (15) After defeating the Italians he was appointed as the Commander of Darnah on March 6th, 1912. (12,16) He managed to defend and retain the city and its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October 1912. (16) Despite this valiant resistance, (11) Italy overwhelmed the Ottomans (11,16) when Atatürk, Enver Bey, Fethi Bey and the other Ottoman military commanders in Libya had to return to Ottoman Europe following the outbreak of the Balkan Wars on 8 October 1912. (16) In the October 1912 Treaty of Ouchy, the Ottoman Empire signed away control of the provinces of Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica, which became Italian Libya. (11,16)

Balkan Wars

When Kemal_Ali returned to the Ottoman Empire in 1912, he married again. (23) His second wife was Sabiha Hanım, the daughter of an Ottoman pasha. (23) They had one son, Zeki Kuneralp, who was born in October 1914. (23) On his return from exile, Ali_Kemal made a speech in favour of a war against the Balkan League in Stambul on 3 October 1912. (23)

First War

As Ottoman control of the empire eroded, ethnic nationalism spread among the various peoples of the Balkan region. (11) Ethnic conflict broke out twice in the First and Second Balkan Wars. (11) On 8th (23) October 1912 (15,23) while Mustafa Kemal was in Vienna for treatment on the shrapnel injury to his eye, (15) [OR] in Libya (16) the First Balkan War broke out. (15,23) Montenegro started it by declaring war against the Ottomans. (23) Mustafa Kemal fought in the Balkan Wars (1912 – 1913). (5,10) In October (12) 1912, (11,12) the First Balkan War began when (12) the Balkan League (made up of the newly independent Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia) attacked the Ottoman Empire in order to wrest away control of areas dominated by their respective ethnic groups that were still under Ottoman suzerainty. (11) Through suzerainty, a nation maintains internal autonomy while another nation or region controls foreign policy and international relations. (11) Mustafa Kemal participated in the war with regiments from Gallipolis and Bolayır. (12) On 1st December 1912, Atatürk arrived at his new headquarters on the Gallipoli peninsula and, during the First Balkan War, he took part in the amphibious landing at Bulair on the coast of Thrace that was commanded by Binbaşı Fethi Bey, but this offensive was repulsed during the Battle of Bulair by Georgi Todorov’s 7th Rila Infantry Division under the command of Stiliyan Kovachev’s Bulgarian Fourth Army. (16) He was assigned to the defense of the Gallipoli Peninsula, an area of strategic importance with respect to the Dardanelles. (15but within two months the Ottoman Empire lost most of its territory in Europe, including Monastir and Salonika, places for which Mustafa Kemal had special affection. (15) Among the refugees who poured into Istanbul were his mother, sister, and stepfather. (15) Thus the Ottomans, including Atatürk’s troops, lost the First Balkan War. (11) Taking advantage of the political confusion reigning in the aftermath, the Committee For Union And Progress (CUP) seized power in a coup d’etat in January 1913. (27) Enver, Talaat, and Jemal, formed the governing triumvirate, dividing the governance of the Ottoman Empire among themselves. (27)

Second War

The Second Balkan War lasted only two months, in June and July (15) of 1913, (11,12) during it (10,11) Mustafa Kemal’s former schoolmate Ali Fethi was named ambassador, and Mustafa Kemal accompanied him (15) as the (10,12) Ottoman (10) Military Attaché (10,12) to Sofia. (12,15) [OR] to all Balkan states. (10,16) In June 1913, during the Second Balkan War, Kemal took part in the Ottoman Army forces commanded by Kaymakam Enver Bey that (16) recovered Dimetoka and Edirne (12,16) (Adrianople, the capital city of the Ottoman Empire between 1365 and 1453, thus of utmost historic importance for the Turks) together with most of eastern Thrace from the Bulgarians. (16) The Ottomans regained part of their lost territory, (11,15) much of the territory of Thrace that had been seized by Bulgaria. (11) This fighting at the frayed edges of the Ottoman Empire was fed by ethnic nationalism. (11) As the incumbent attaché, (12) he was promoted to the rank of (10,12) Kaymakam (10,16) (Lieutenant Colonel) (10,12) on 1st March (16) 1914. (10,12) Relations were renewed with Bulgaria. (15) As it led the empire to a partial recovery in the Second Balkan War, the CUP monopolized political power domestically by bringing the Parliament completely under its influence. (27) It also began to steer away from the long-held Ottoman foreign policy of alliances with Great Britain and France, and forged a stronger military cooperation with Germany. (27) Moreover, the CUP compensated for the Ottoman retreat in the Balkans by promoting Pan-Turkism, an expansionist program designed to challenge Russia in its southern tier. (27) By the time World War I broke out in August 1914, the CUP constituted a chauvinistic band which had subordinated the Ottoman state to its Turkist ideology. (27)

Figure 1: Turkey highlighting some of the places important in Ataturk’s life.

World War I

In 1914, a related ethnic and territorial spat between Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire set off a chain reaction that soon involved all the European powers in what would become World War I. (11) World War I was a pivotal period in Atatürk’s life. (11) During the war, (1,8) the Ottoman Empire (9,11) entered the European and Middle Eastern theatres (16) [OR] was forced to participate (12,14) [OR] inevitably involved (13) was propelled into war against its better interests by the C.U.P. entering into a secret accord with Germany. (27) It allied itself with Germany and Austria-Hungary (9,11) to form the Central Powers, fighting against Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. (11) Mustafa Kemal complained of Enver’s close ties to Germany and predicted German defeat in an international conflict. (15) To consolidate Turkish rule in the remaining territories of the Ottoman Empire and to expand the state into the so-called Turanian lands in the east, most held by Iran and Russia, the CUP devised in secret a program for the extermination of the Armenian population. (27) By this time, the ageing empire had lost almost all of its territory in Europe and Africa. (9) Once World War I broke out and the Ottoman Empire entered on the side of the Central Powers, Kemal sought a military command. (15) Enver made him cool his heels in Sofia but finally (15) in January 1915, his assignment as Military Attaché in the Balkans ended (12,15) He was appointed to Tekirdağ (12) to establish (12,16) the 19th Division (11,12) of the Fifth Army in Gallipoli. (11,15) To the Ittihadists, the global crisis of 1914 represented a rare opportunity to change the fortunes of the Ottoman state and to use the cover of war to embark upon a policy of both internal and external social engineering the likes of which had not been attempted or imagined. (27) Once again they gambled on the element of surprise, subterfuge, and radical daring, this time against a civilian minority population. (27) Even though the initial advance of Ottoman forces in 1914 into Russia and Iran did not result in a permanent expansion, on the whole the Ottoman armies held Allied forces in check until 1916 and did not capitulate until 1918. (27) The main thrust of the Armenian Genocide, however, was implemented within the first year of the war, years ahead of any imminent collapse. (27) In his capacity as the Deputy Commander-in-Chief (the honorary command being reserved for the sovereign), Enver exercised ultimate control over the Ottoman armies which carried out major atrocities, first in 1915 and then with renewed vigor when Turkish forces broke the Russian line in 1918 and invaded the Caucasus. (27) The forces under the command of his brother, Nuri, and uncle, Halil, spread devastation through Russian Armenia and carried out massacres of Armenians all the way to Baku. (27) Talaat as Minister of the Interior in Istanbul ran the government for a figurehead grand vizier. (27) He was the mastermind of the Armenian Genocide and coordinated the various agencies of the Ottoman government required for the deportation, expropriation, and extermination of the Armenians. (27)

Gallipoli

Atatürk predicted that the Allied Powers would attack the Ottoman Empire at Gallipoli, (11,16) and he became the front-line commander there. (16) He made his military reputation (5,6) in 1915 (5,7) by securing the Ottoman Turkish victory (7,11) at the Battle of (8) Gallipoli (6,8) and repelling the Allied invasion at the Dardanelles in 1915. (5,7) Britain and France sent in a total of 568,000 men over the course of the Gallipoli Campaign, including large numbers of Australians and New Zealanders. (11) Colonel (7,9) [OR] General (1) Mustafa Kemal (7) distinguished himself throughout the nearly year-long (9) Gallipoli Peninsula campaign. (9,11) The British and French fleets suffered heavy losses during the attempts to pass through the Straits on March 18th, 1915, so they decided to land troops on the Gallipolis (12) [OR] Gallipoli (9,11) Peninsula. (12) When the enemy forces landed at Arıburnu (12,14) (Cape of Bees) (12) now called Anzak Koyu (Anzac Cove) (14) on April 25th, 1915, the 19th Division, under the command of Mustafa Kemal, stopped them at Conkbayırı (Chunuk Bair). (12) ) Under Atatürk’s leadership, the Turks held off a British and French attempt to advance up the Gallipoli Peninsula. (11) The Turks held on to the high ground at Gallipoli, keeping the Allied forces pinned to the beaches. (11) Mustafa Kemal’s command to his soldiers, ‘I am not ordering you to attack, I am ordering you to die!’ changed the fate of the battle. (12) His success thrust Mustafa Kemal onto the world scene. (15) He was hailed as the “Saviour of Istanbul” (15) and was promoted to colonel (12,15) on June 1st 1915. (15) The British forces attacked Arıburnu again on August 6th-7th, 1915. (12) Mustafa Kemal, now in command of the Anafartalar Group, won the Battle of Anafertalar3 on August, 9th-10th. (12) This victory was followed by victories at Kireçtepe on August 17, and the 2nd Battle of Anafartalar victory on August 21st. (12) He won successive victories and (7) held his position until the Allies retreated, (16) inflicting a key defeat on them. (7,11) He became a national hero. (7) The Entente States had to admit that Dardanelles were impassable. (12) ‘Çanakkale is unpassable!’ (13) 44,000 Allied soldiers were killed and almost 100,000 were wounded. (11) The Ottoman force was smaller, numbering about 315,500 men, of whom about 86,700 were killed and over 164,000 were wounded. (11) During the battle, Mustafa Kemal himself was hit by a piece of shrapnel, which lodged in the watch he carried in his breast pocket and thus failed to cause him serious injury. (15) The Turkish Nation, which had 253,000 (12) [OR] 228,000 (11) casualties during the Gallipolis Battles, had known how to protect its honour against the Entente States. (12) This bloody but successful defensive action (11,16) formed one of the centrepieces of Turkish nationalism in the years to come, and Atatürk was at the centre of it all. (11) The period of the Gallipoli campaign saw the mass deportations of the civilian Armenian population, carried out in the spring and summer of 1915 and completed by the autumn; the systematic slaughter of the Armenians had started earlier with the murder of the able-bodied males already drafted into the Ottoman armed forces. (27) By expropriating the movable and immovable wealth of the Armenians, the CUP also looked upon its policy of genocide as a means for enriching its coffers and rewarding its cohorts. (27) The elimination of a commercially viable minority fulfilled part of the nationalist program to concentrate financial power in the hands of the state and promote greater Turkish control over the domestic economy. (27) Enver, Talaat, and Jemal, who were responsible for these policies formed the governing triumvirate which had concentrated power its hands with the January 1913 coup. (27) The triumvirs divided the governance of the Ottoman Empire among themselves. (27)

Russian Front 1916

Following the Allied withdrawal from (11,12) Gallipoli [OR] Gallipolis (12) in January 1916, (11) Mustafa Kemal served in Edirne until 14th January 1916. (16) After the massive Russian offensive had reached key Anatolian cities. (16) He was assigned to the command of the 16th Corps of the Second Army (16) and sent to the Russian front, (15,16) the Caucasus Campaign (16) in eastern Turkey. (7,9) On April 1st, (12,13) 1916 (7,12) at age 35, (7) he was promoted to the rank of Major General (12) [OR] brigadier-general (9,14) [OR] general (7,15) [OR] lieutenant general (13) acquiring the title of pasha. (15) He took up duties in Diyarbakır. (12) This was a period when the Armenian Massacres were in full swing. (9,22) An estimated 1.5 million Armenians died and others were expelled during the war and its aftermath, but Mustafa Kemal has not been linked to the perpetration of the genocide. (9) Between July 19164 (22) and March 19175 the Turkish Army on the Caucasian Front lost 60,000 men to starvation, disease and other causes, leaving effectively only 20,000. (22) Marshal Liman von Sanders attributes these losses to the destruction of Turkish agricultural production because of the deportations of the Armenians. (22) On April 6th, 14,000 Armenians were massacred in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain), to the south of where Kemal was. (22) 24,000 deportees were reported still living there. (22) By April 14th 70,000 Armenians were reported massacred there. (22) On April 15th a battalion of the Turkish 4th Army Engineers arrived in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain) from Damascus to assist in massacring the Armenians. (22) On April 15th 19,000 Armenian deportees arrived near the Khabur River, less than 100 miles south of him. (22) On April 16th the New York Times reported that German Catholics had placed the number of massacred Armenians at 1,000,000, and that they blamed England for this great crime. (22) On April 19th 50 to 100 Armenian deportees are reported to be dying of starvation every day on the Euphrates. (22) On April 28th the Turkish government again rejected foreign relief for the Armenians. (22) On May 3rd, according to The New York Times, 15,000 Armenians had been massacred in the nearby town of Mamakhatun, west of the city of Erzerum before its fall, (22) On June 30th a proposal was made to the Armenian labour battalions in Damascus and to the civilian deportees that they become Muslims. (22) Very few Armenians accepted. (22) On July 5th the massacre of the 7,000 Armenian troops imprisoned in Sivas begins. (22) On July 6th The Russian Army occupies Bayburt and Erzinjan. (22) In the middle of this, on 7th August, he rallied his troops and mounted a counteroffensive. (16) He fought successful battles against the Russian (11,12) Imperial Army in the Caucasus (11) and recaptured the two (7,12) major (7) provinces (7,12) of Muş and Bitlis (12,18) in 1916, (7) upsetting the calculations of the Russian Command. (16) He was the only Turkish general to win any victories over the Russians on the Eastern Front. (15) In order to further the Islamization and Turkification of the Armenian remnants in the Hawran District, all the Armenian clerics found there are murdered by the Turks. (22) On July 23rd the proposal was made to the Armenian military doctors in Sivas that they become Muslims. (22) Almost all of them refused and were at once killed. (22) On August 8th 15,000 Armenian deportees were removed from Aleppo to the desert. (22) On August 12th the Turkish government again refused aid to the Armenian deportees by a neutral commission. (22) On August 14th 200,000 Armenian deportees were reported killed in massacres by this date in the Zor District, at a delta formed by the juncture of the Khabur and Euphrates River near Suwar (Suvar), Marrat (Marat), and Elbusayra. (22) On September 3rd a five member commission of Turks arrived in the Hawran District to convert the Armenian deportees to Islam. (22) Two days later the government ordered all Armenian orphans to be given Turkish names. (22) On September 7th 60,000 more Armenian deportees were reported massacred in the Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) area. (22) September 16 Turkish authorities enter American consular offices to search for British records. (22) On September 29th the German Cabinet, in its 86th session, discussed the Armenian massacres. (22) On 3rd October Count Wolff-Metternich left his post as ambassador to Turkey, recalled by the German General Staff at the request of Enver because he had protested against the Armenian massacres. (22) Wilhelm Radowitz interim Chargé d’affaires reported to the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethman Hollweg On October 6th that of the two million Armenians in Turkey, one and half million had been deported. (22) Of these 1,175,000 were dead, and 325,000 still living. (22) On October 5th The Turkish government confiscates by a provisional law all the real estate of the Armenians. (22) October 8th and October 9th U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, proclaimed these two days ‘Armenian Relief Days.’ (22) On December 4th, Omer Naji, an inspector-general of the Ittihad Committee, announced that Ittihad intended to organize a purely Turkish state. (22) On January 4th Mr. Goppert of the German Embassy, visits Enver, Talaat and Foreign Minister Halil to convey that forcible Islamization had no connection with military necessity or the security of the state and must be stopped immediately. (22) On February 4th Talaat became the Grand Vizier of Turkey. (22) In March 1917, Ataturk received command of the entire Second Army, (11,15) although their Russian opponents withdrew almost immediately due to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution. (11,15) There he met Colonel İsmet (İnönü), who would become his closest ally in building the Turkish republic. (15) On 5th March the government distributed 400 Armenian orphans from Aleppo by rail to various villages and towns. (22) 350 Armenian orphans from an Armenian orphanage in Syria were given to surviving relatives, no matter how distantly related, in order to keep them from falling into the hands of the Turks. (22) Following victory over Russia, the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) government in Constantinople proposed to establish a new army in Hejaz (Hicaz Kuvve-i Seferiyesi) and appoint Atatürk to its command, but he refused the proposal and this army was never established. (16)

Palestine

Mustafa Kemal was thus available for service in the Ottoman provinces of Syria and Iraq, on which the British were advancing from their base in Egypt. (15) The sultan was determined to shore up the Ottoman defences in Arabia and prevailed upon Atatürk to go to Palestine (11) after the British captured Jerusalem in December 1917. (11,22) He was appointed to the command of the Seventh Army in Syria (15,16) under the command of the German general Erich von Falkenhayn’s Yildirim Army Group. (16) He spent a short time in Damascus and Aleppo. (12) On January 9th the Aleppo Police Department obtained the list of all the Armenian labour battalion workers constructing the Aleppo Normal School for the selection of those to be killed. (22) He was appalled by the sad state of the army (15,16) and did not get along well with General von Falkenhayn. (16) He wrote to the government, noting that the situation in Palestine was hopeless, and proposed that a new defensive position be established in Syria. (11,16) with Turks instead of Germans in command. (16) When Constantinople rejected this plan, (11,16) Atatürk resigned his post (11,15) and returned to the capital. (11,12) without permission. (15) He was placed on leave for three months (15) [OR] In the next two years, he served as commander of several Ottoman armies (7) in Syria (9,11) Palestine, (7,9)

State visit to Germany January 1917

He was then assigned to accompany (15,16) Crown Prince (12,13) Mehmed (16) Vahdettin Efendi (12,13) the heir to the throne (13) on a state visit (15) by train to Austria-Hungary and (16) Germany. (15,16) He examined the Western Front, (12,16) and concluded that the Central Powers would soon lose the war. (16) He did not hesitate to openly express this opinion to Kaiser Wilhelm II and his high-ranking generals in person. (16) He became ill after this trip. (12,13) with kidney problems, most probably related to gonorrhoea, which it is believed he had contracted earlier. (15) He went to Vienna and Karlsbad for treatment. (12,13) (His physical problems would later require him to have a personal physician in constant attendance throughout his years as president of the Turkish republic.) (15) While he was in Carlsbad, Sultan Mehmed V died, and Vahideddin assumed the throne as Mehmed VI. (15) Mustafa Kemal was recalled to Istanbul in June 1918. (15)

Palestine again

When Mehmed VI became the new Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in July 1918, (16) through Enver’s machinations, (15) he assigned Mustafa Kemal to command the collapsing Ottoman forces in Syria. (15,16) As the Central Powers’ defeat loomed, (11) on August (12,16) 15th, (12) 1918, Atatürk returned once more (11,12) to Aleppo as the Commander of the 7th Army. (12,16) [OR] to the Arabian Peninsula to supervise an orderly retreat. (11) He arrived in Aleppo on 26th August 1918, then continued south to his headquarters in Nablus. (16) He found the situation there worse than he had imagined. (15) The Seventh Army was holding the central sector of the front lines. (16) The Ottoman forces lost the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918. (11On 19th September, at the beginning of the Battle of Megiddo, the Eighth Army was holding the coastal flank but fell apart and Liman Pasha ordered the Seventh Army to withdraw to the north in order to prevent the British from conducting a short envelopment to the Jordan River. (16) The Seventh Army retired (15,16) towards the Jordan River (16) to save the lives of as many of his soldiers as possible, (15) but was destroyed by British aerial bombardment during its retreat from Nablus on 21 September 1918. (16) [OR] He undertook successful defensive battles against the British Forces. (7,12) Nevertheless, Atatürk managed to form a defense line to the north of Aleppo. (16) This was another major victory. (7) [OR] This was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman world. (11) On October 26th the Allied forces occupied Aleppo. (22) With the arrival of the British and French armies and the Armenian Legion, 125,000 remnants of the deported Armenians were rescued from the desert. (22) The war ended with the Armistice of Mudros (15,16) [OR] Moudros (12) [OR] Mondros (13) which was signed on 30th (15,16) [OR] 31st October, (12,16) 1918. (12,15) and all German and Austro-Hungarian troops in the Ottoman Empire were granted ample time to withdraw. (16) With the defeat of the Ottomans in World War I the destruction of the CUP became a drawn out matter pursued by all their opponents. (27) Fully cognizant of the Allied threat to hold them responsible for war crimes, the CUP cabinet ministers involved with the Armenian massacres resigned from the government on hearing of the (27) after the signing of the (12,13) Mudros (15,27) Armistice, (12,27) Atatürk was appointed to the command of the Yıldırım (12,16) Lightning (12) Army Group, (12,16) replacing Liman von Sanders. (16) He organized the distribution of weapons to the civilians in Antep in case of a defensive conflict against the invading Allies. (16) Atatürk’s last active service in the Ottoman Army was organizing the return of the remaining Ottoman forces in the Middle East. (11,16) He had been the most successful general officer of the empire in World War I. (6) According to Lord Kinross, Atatürk was the only Turkish general in the war who never suffered a defeat. (16) On November 13th, 1918, (12,15) [OR] 1919 (15) the Yıldırım Army Group was officially dissolved. (15,16)

Seizure of Power

Ottoman Collapse

The key Ittihadist leaders fled Turkey, while the rank and file went underground. (27) Shortly afterward, Enver and other leaders of the Committee for Union and Progress fled to Germany, leaving the sultan to lead the government. (15) Throughout October and early November, under the terms of the armistice (11) The Allied forces started to take over the Ottoman armies. (13) To ensure the continuation of his rule, Mehmed VI was willing to cooperate with the Allies, who assumed control of the government. (15) The Allies did not wait for a peace treaty (15) to begin claiming Ottoman territory. (12,15) and began to invade. (12) Allied statesmen seemed to be abandoning Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points in favour of the old imperialist views set down in the secret treaties and contained in their own secret ambitions. (15) The Allies made plans to incorporate the provinces of eastern Anatolia into an independent Armenian state. (15) French troops advanced into Cilicia in the southeast. (15) Greece and Italy put forward competing claims for southwestern Anatolia. (15) The Italians occupied Marmaris, Antalya, and Burdur. (15) On 11 November 1918 (Armistice Day) Ahmed Izzet Pasha was appointed Grand Vizier. (23,26) Ali_Kemal backed him with the support of the Naval and Khoja parties. (23) Two days after his term began, (15,26) on 13th November 1918, (15,16) the Allies began their occupation of Constantinople. (15,26) This was the same day that Mustafa Kemal returned to (11,12) Istanbul (12,15) [OR] Constantinople. (11,16) He arrived to see ships of the Allied fleet sailed up the Bosporus. (15) [OR] He found it occupied (11,16) by the victorious British and French. (11) [OR] Early in December 1918, Allied troops occupied sections of Istanbul and set up an Allied military administration. (15) This scene, as well as the city’s occupation by British, French, and Italian troops, left a lasting impression on Mustafa Kemal. (15) The Allies pressured sultan Mehmet VI to dissolve the parliament on 21st December. (25) For a few weeks, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha’s government was dissolved as well. (25) He formed his government again on 12 January 1919. (25) On 28th January 1919 Ali_Kemal Bey wrote, “Four or five years ago a historically singular crime has been perpetrated, a crime before which the world shudders. (23) Given its dimensions and standards, its authors do not number in the fives, or tens, but in the hundreds of thousands. (23) In fact, it has already been demonstrated that this tragedy was planned on the basis of a decision reached by the Central Committee of Ittihad.” (23) The government convened tribunals in 1919 to hear testimony on the conduct of the war and the implementation of the Armenian Genocide. (27) On 6th February Dr. Reshid, former governor-general of Diyarbekir Province and a major war criminal, commited suicide. (22) On February 8th, 1919, the French general Franchet d’Espèrey entered Istanbul in a spectacle compared to the entrance of Mehmed the Conqueror in 1453—but this time signifying that (15) Ottoman sovereignty over the imperial city was no more. (11,15)

Ministry of War

Kemal commenced duties at the Ministry of War. (12) He was determined to oust the Allies. (15) He began meeting with selected friends to formulate a policy to save Turkey. (15) Among these friends were Ali Fuat and Rauf (Orbay), the Ottoman naval hero. (15) Ali Fuat was stationed in Anatolia and knew the situation there intimately. (15) He and Mustafa Kemal developed a plan for an Anatolian national movement centred on Ankara. (15) In various parts of Anatolia, Turks had already taken matters into their own hands, calling themselves associations for the defense of rights and organizing paramilitary units. (15) They began to come into armed conflict with local non-Muslims, and it appeared that they might soon do so against the occupying forces as well. (15) Fearing anarchy, the Allies urged the sultan to restore order in Anatolia. (15) The grand vizier recommended Mustafa Kemal as a loyal officer who could be (15) sent to Anatolia as inspector general of the (12,15) 3rd (15) [OR] 9th (12) Army. (12,15) In April 1919 he was tasked with reorganizing the tattered Ottoman Army so that it could provide internal security during the transition. (11) Mustafa Kemal contrived to get his orders written in such a way as to give him extraordinarily extensive powers. (15) These included the authority to issue orders throughout Anatolia and to command obedience from provincial governors. (15) On May 15th, 1919, Greek troops landed at Izmir. (15) The Allied Powers forced Ahmet Tevfik Pasha to dissolve his ministry again, and he resigned as grand vizier on 3 March 1919. (25) Damit Ferid Pasha’s first ministry as Grand Vizier coincided with the Occupation of Smyrna by the Greek army. (24) The Turkish Independence War was started when the first bullet was fired against the enemy during the occupation of Izmir by the Greek forces on 15th (12,14) [OR] 14th (22) May 1919. (12,14) A mass meeting of 100,000 persons organized by Constantinople Police Department protested against the landing of the Greek Army at Smyrna. (22) The Greeks began a drive into the interior of Anatolia, killing Turkish inhabitants and ravaging the countryside. (15)

Going to Samsun, May 1919

As a result, (12,15) instead of his ‘reorganising’ work, (12) Mustafa Kemal went to Samsun (12,15) on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia on the morning of (15) May 19th, 1919, (12,15) as ‘the 9th Army Inspector’. (12) on assignment from the Ministry of War and the Grand Vizier in Constantinople. (22) Modern Turkish history may be said to begin with his landing at Samsun. (15) There he told a cheering crowd that the sultan was the prisoner of the Allies and that he had come to prevent the nation from slipping through the fingers of its people. (15) This became his message to the Turks of Anatolia. (15) On that same day Ali_Kemal was appointed Minister of the Interior in the cabinet of Damat Ferid Pasha, replacing Mehmet Ali Bey who had retired. (23) So psychologically meaningful was this date for Mustafa Kemal that, when in later life he was asked to provide his date of birth for an encyclopaedia article, he gave it as May 19, 1919. (15) and began to organize the army into (11) an independence movement based in Ankara (9,10) which would organise nationalist resistance. (11) He engaged himself completely in the Turkish war of Independence. (10) He galvanized his people against invading Greek forces who sought to impose the Allied will upon the war-weary Turks and repulsed aggression by British, French, and Italian troops. (15) Abandoning his official reason for being in Anatolia—to restore order—he headed inland for Amasya. (15) Meanwhile, on 11th June Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha officially confessed to massacres against Armenians and became a key figure and initiator of the war crime trials to condemn to death the chief perpetrators of the genocide, who were notably Committee of Union and Progress members and long-time rivals of his own Freedom and Accord Party. (24) Mustafa Kemal distanced himself from the Ittihadists but (27) absorbed into his forces former CUP members prepared to switch allegiance. (22,27)

Amasya Circular, June 1919

In the Amasya (11,12) Circular (11) [OR] Proclamation (12) published on June (11,12) 22nd (12,14) 1919 (11,12) he announced, ‘The independence of the country will be secured by the determination and decisiveness of the nation’. (12,14) Meanwhile, Ali_Kemal was one of the members of the Ottoman delegation to the Paris peace conference in June 1919. (23) On 25th June 1919, The Times reported that Ali_Kemal had accused agents of the Committee of Union and Progress of impeding the restoration of order in the Ottoman provinces, specifically accusing Talat Pasha of organizing Albanian brigand bands in the İzmit and Enver Pasha of doing the same in the Panderma, Balikesir, and Karasi districts. (23) He also alleged that the Committee for union and progress (CUP) had £700,000 of party funds available for propaganda as well as numerous fortunes made by profiteering during the Great War. (23) At some point between 25th June and 3rd July Ali_Kemal resigned. (23) The Allies pressured the sultan to recall Mustafa Kemal, who ignored all communications from Istanbul. (15) The sultan dismissed him and telegraphed all provincial governors, instructing them to ignore Mustafa Kemal’s orders. (15) Imperial orders for his arrest were circulated. (15,16) Mustafa Kemal avoided dismissal from the army by officially resigning late (15,16) on the evening of July 7th (15) [OR] on 8th July. (16) As a civilian, he pressed on with his retinue from Sivas to Erzurum, where General Kâzim Karabekir, commander of the XV Army Corps of 18,000 men, was headquartered. (15) At this critical moment, when Mustafa Kemal had no military support or official status, Kâzim threw in his lot with Mustafa Kemal, placing his troops at Mustafa Kemal’s disposal. (15) This was a crucial turning point in the struggle for independence. (15) On 18th July Ali_Kemal condemned the attacks on and massacres of the empire’s Armenians during the First World War and inveighed against the Ittihadist chieftains as the authors of that crime, relentlessly demanding their prosecution and punishment. (23) “… our Minister of Justice has opened the doors of prisons. (23) Don’t let us try to throw the blame on the Armenians; we must not flatter ourselves that the world is filled with idiots. (23) We have plundered the possessions of the men whom we deported and massacred; we have sanctioned theft in our Chamber and our Senate. (23) Let us prove that we have sufficient national energy to put the law into force against the heads of these bands who have trampled justice underfoot and dragged our honour and our national life through the dust.” (23)

Congress of Erzurum July 1919

Kemal warned that Turkey’s independence was in peril, (11) and he [OR] Kâzim (15) summoned a Congress (7,12) of all defence-of-rights associations (15) at Erzurum (7,12) on July 23, 1919. (12,14) Delegates from all over the country gathered there between (14) July 23rd and August 7th. (12,14) Mustafa Kemal was elected head of the Erzurum Congress and thereby gained an official status. (15) The congress drafted a document covering the six eastern provinces of the empire. (15) Later known as the National Pact, it affirmed the inviolability of the Ottoman “frontiers”—that is, all the Ottoman lands inhabited by Turks when the Armistice of Mudros was signed. (15) It also created a provisional government, revoked the special status arrangements for the minorities of the Ottoman Empire (the capitulations), and set up a steering committee, which then elected Mustafa Kemal as head. (15)

Sivas Congress September 1919

Mustafa Kemal sought to extend the National Pact to the entire Ottoman-Muslim population of the empire. (15) To that end, he called (15) a second national congress that met in Sivas on September 4th – 11th 1919 (12,14) and ratified the pact. (15) He exposed attempts by the sultan’s government to arrest him and to disrupt the Sivas Congress. (15)

Murder of Ali_Kemal

Ali_Kemal campaigned against the Kemalist movement. (23) Along with other conservatives serving under the Sultan in Istanbul, Ali_Kemal also set up an organisation known as the İngiliz Muhipler Cemiyeti (“The Anglophile Society”), which advocated British protectorate status for Turkey. (23) This, combined with his past opposition to the Committee of Union and Progress, made him anathema to the nationalist movement gathering strength in Ankara and fighting the Turkish War of Independence against the attempts between Greece and the Entente Powers to partition Anatolia. (23) The situation then changed drastically as the grand vizier in Istanbul (15,15) Damat Ferid Pasha (24) was driven from office (15,25) on 30th September 1919. (24) The new government, which was sympathetic to the nationalist movement, restored Mustafa Kemal’s military rank and decorations. (15) On 4th November, Ali_Kemal was kidnapped from a barber shop at Tokatliyan Hotel in Istanbul, and was carried to the Anatolian side of the city by a motor boat en route to Ankara for a trial on charges of treason. (23) On 6 November 1922, the party was intercepted at İzmit by General Nureddin Pasha, then the Commander of the First Army, which was aligned with Mustafa Ali_Kemal Pasha. (23) Ali_Kemal was attacked and lynched by a mob set up by Nureddin with sticks, stones and knives, and hanged from a tree. (23) His head was smashed by cudgels and he was stoned to death. (23) As described by Nureddin personally to Riza Nur, who with Ismet Inönü was on his way to Lausanne to negotiate peace with the Allies, “his blood-covered body was subsequently hanged with an epitaph across his chest which read, ‘Artin Ali_Kemal'”. (23) This bestowal of a fictitious Armenian name administered a final indignity to the victim. (23)

Ankara December 1919

The congresses at Sivas and Erzurum determined the path to follow in order to gain the nation’s independence, (12,14) and established the basis for the new national effort under his leadership. (7) Mustafa Kemal was welcomed with excitement in Ankara on December 27th 1919. (12,14) The last election to the Ottoman parliament, held in December 1919, gave a sweeping majority to candidates of the ‘Association for Defense of Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia (Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)’, headed by Atatürk, (16) who himself remained in Ankara. (15,16) Unconvinced of the sultan’s ability to rid the country of the Allied occupation, Mustafa Kemal established the seat of his provisional government there, 300 miles (480 km) from Istanbul. (15) There he would be safer from both the sultan and the Allies. (15) This proved a wise decision. (15) The fourth (and last) term of the parliament opened in Constantinople on 12 January 1920. (16) On March 16th, 1920, in Istanbul, the Allies arrested leading nationalist sympathizers, including Rauf, and sent them to Malta. (15) It was dissolved by British forces two days later on 18th March 1920, shortly after it adopted the Misak-ı Millî (“National Pact”). (16) The conciliatory Istanbul government fell and was replaced by reactionaries who dissolved the parliament. (15) The new government sentenced Mustafa Kemal to death in absentia, (9,15) pressuring the religious dignitaries into declaring Mustafa Kemal and his associates infidels worthy of being shot on sight. (15) This opposition failed to prevent Mustafa Kemal from building up both military and popular support. (9,15) The die was cast—it would be the sultan’s government or Mustafa Kemal’s. (15) Many prominent Turks escaped from Istanbul to Ankara, including İsmet and, after him, Fevzi (Çakmak), the sultan’s war minister. (15) Fevzi became Mustafa Kemal’s chief of the general staff. (15)

The Grand National Assembly, April 1920

In response to the Treaty of Sevres (11) [OR] On April 23rd, 1920 (7,12)6 Atatürk called a new national election and had a separate parliament installed. (11,15) This was known as the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. (7,11) On its first day (14) April 24th (12,13) 1920, he was elected as the Speaker of the Assembly (12,13) and the Head of the Government. (12,14) The position of Speaker was equal to (13) [OR] the same as (15) that of the president as well as the prime minister. (13) This was a significant step on the path to founding the Turkish Republic. (12) Its goal was to end foreign occupation of the Turkish-speaking areas and to stop them from being partitioned. (9) The Grand National Assembly started preparing and passing the new laws necessary for implementing the Independence War successfully. (14) The Turkish National Movement proclaimed itself to be the sole government of the nation and rejected the sultanate. (25)

Treaty of Sèvres August 1920

Mustafa Kemal was quite right to fear for the independence of Turkey. (11) At the conclusion of World War I, (10) the Allied powers, (5,9) Britain in the lead, dissolved Turkey’s parliament and strong-armed the sultan into signing away his remaining rights. (11) In June (15) 1920 the Allies handed the sultan the Treaty of Sèvres. (11,15) By the provisions of this treaty, the Ottoman state was greatly reduced in size. (9,15) Turkey would be partitioned among the victors of World War I (11,12) France, Britain, Greece, Armenia and the Kurds. (11) The Allies could occupy forts that controlled major waterways (10) and maintain an international force at the Bosporus Strait. (11) All Arab provinces were stripped from the Ottoman Empire; (9) There would be an independent Armenia (9,15) and an autonomous Kurdistan. (9) Greece was one of the major beneficiaries. (9,15) obtaining a region surrounding Smyrna (now Izmir) and asserting economic control over what little country remained. (9) Only a small state centered around Ankara would remain in Turkish hands. (11) After his second term as grand vizier, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha served as the president of the Ottoman delegation to the Paris Peace Conference ending World War I. (25) His delegation refused the heavy terms of the proposed treaty, but another delegation sent by the Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha accepted the terms and signed (25) [OR] The Sultan signed (15) the Treaty of Sèvres. (11,15) on August (11,15) 10th, (12,15) 1920 (11,15) This plan was completely unacceptable to Atatürk and his fellow Turkish nationalists, (11) and Kemal repudiated it. (15) In fact, it meant war: when the Allied occupation forces tried to partition Turkey as per the Treaty of Sevres, (11) militia forces called ‘Kuvay-i Milliye’ (National Forces) (12) fought against the occupying powers. (8,12) Mustafa Kemal persuaded the GNA (16) to put together an army. (11,16) It established a regular army, united the National Forces under this army (12) and launched the War of Turkish Independence. (11) [OR] It had already begun on May 15th 1919 with the shooting of the first bullet, during the Greek invasion of İzmir. (12) The GNA promulgated the necessary laws for the successful conclusion of the War of Independence and ensured the proper implementation of these laws. (12)

War of Liberation

This GNA Army faced the Caliphate army propped up by the Allied occupation forces and had the immediate task of fighting the Armenian forces in the Eastern Front and the Greek forces advancing eastward from Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) that they had occupied in May 1919, on the Western Front. (16) Throughout 1921, the GNA (11) army under Atatürk registered victories (7,8) against rebels (7) and invading armies (7,8) sent by the Allies (8) [OR] the neighboring powers. (11) He fought on many fronts. (7,9) Having received military aid from the Soviet Union, (9,15) he set out to drive the Greeks from Anatolia and Thrace and to subdue the new Armenian state. (15) In January 1920, Atatürk advanced his troops into Marash where the Battle of Marash ensued against the French Armenian Legion. (16) The battle resulted in a Turkish victory alongside the massacres of 5,000–12,000 Armenians spelling the end of the remaining Armenian population in the region. (16) In his message to Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader and head of the Russian SFSR’s government, dated 26 April 1920, Kemal promised to coordinate his military operations with the Bolsheviks’ “fight against imperialist governments” and requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments “as first aid” to his forces. (16) The GNA military successes against the Democratic Republic of Armenia in the autumn of 1920 and later against the Greeks were made possible by a steady supply of gold and armaments to the Kemalists from the Russian Bolshevik government from the autumn of 1920 onwards. (16) In 1920 alone, the Lenin government supplied the Kemalists with 6,000 rifles, over 5 million rifle cartridges, 17,600 projectiles as well as 200.6 kg of gold bullion; in the subsequent 2 years the amount of aid increased. (16) As the war against the Greeks started to go well for Mustafa Kemal’s forces, (15) France and Italy negotiated with the nationalist government in Ankara. (15) They withdrew their troops from Anatolia. (9,15) This left the Armenians in southeastern Anatolia without the protection of the French troops. (15) With the French and Italians out of the picture, Kâzim then moved against the Armenian state. (15) He was assisted by the Bolsheviks, who had established relations with the government of the GNA. (15) On 21st October 1920, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha was once more appointed grand vizier, replacing Damat Ferit Pasha. (25) With secret instructions from the Ankara government to proceed with the physical elimination of Armenia, General Kiazim Karabekir seized half the territories of Armenia in November 1920. (22) The Armenian population was driven out at the point of the sword with heavy casualties. (22) Deserting their Armenian protégés, the Russians now supplied the nationalists with weapons and ammunition and (15) joined the assault on the Armenian Socialist Republic, (15,22) which had been their own creation. (15) This combined attack was too much for (15) the Armenians, who were crushed (9,15) in October and November 1920; they surrendered early in November. (15) The important stages of the Turkish War of Independence were as follows: The Liberation of Sarıkamış (September 20, 1920), Kars (October 30, 1920) and Gümrü (November 7, 1920) Defending the provinces of Çukurova, Gaziantep, (12,14) Kahramanmaraş (12) [OR] Kahraman Maras (15) and Şanlıurfa (1919-1921). (12,14) By the Treaty of Alexandropol (December 3, 1920) and the Treaty of Moscow (March 16, 1921), (15) the nationalists regained the eastern provinces, (12,14) as well as the cities of Kars and Ardahan, and the Soviet Union became the first nation to recognize the nationalist government in Ankara. (15) Turkey’s eastern borders were fixed at the Arpa and Aras rivers. (15)

Sakarya – September, 1921

The Greeks were more difficult to overcome. (15) They were trying to seize Smyrna and its hinterland. (5) By the end of July, 1920 (15) after a series of battles (16) which had begun in June 1920, they had taken Bursa (15) and they advanced toward Ankara. (9,15) Ali Fuat was relieved as commander on this front and replaced by İsmet. (15) The Turks triumphed at two major battles at (7,12) the İnönü River, north of Kütahya. (15) in Western Turkey (7,12) The First was fought between January 6th and 10th, (12,14) 1921 (12,15) [OR] 1920 (14) The Greeks did not resume their offensive until March 1921. (15) İsmet again met them at the (15) second battle on the İnönü which took place between March 23rd (12,14) [OR] 27th (15) and April 1st 1921 (12,14) [OR] 1920. (14) On the evening of April 6–7, 1921, the Greeks broke off the engagement and retreated. (15) Undaunted, the Greeks launched another offensive on July 13, 1921. (15) They wrought havoc on the Turkish population during their (9) march as far as the Sakarya River, (15,16) within 50 miles of Ankara. (9,16) İsmet fell back before them, so close to Ankara that the artillery fire could be heard there. (15) Opposition to Mustafa Kemal developed in the GNA, led by Kâzim, who had grown jealous. (15) The opposition demanded that Mustafa Kemal’s powers be curtailed so that a new policy could be developed. (15) In addition they sought to have Mustafa Kemal assume personal direction of the war against the Greeks, anticipating a Greek victory that would result in the destruction of Mustafa Kemal’s stature and charisma. (15) On August (15,16) 4th (15) [OR] 5th (16) Mustafa Kemal was promoted to Commander in chief of the forces (15,16) on the condition that he be granted all the powers assigned to the GNA. (15) Mustafa Kemal then turned his attention to the Greeks, (5,9) In August, 1921, he launched an offensive against them. (9) He stopped the Greek advance at the Battle of Sakarya, (9,12) on September 19th (12) [OR] August 23rd – September 13th, 1921 (12,14) The battle ended with the defeat of the Greeks. (16) In recognition of that (7,12) on 19th September 1921, (16) the Turkish Grand National Assembly bestowed Mustafa Kemal with the rank of Marshal (7,12) and the title of Gazi (12,16) ‘war veteran’ (12) [OR] Victorious Fighter (14) [OR] Commander-in-Chief. (7) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha offered the nationalist Ankara government to join his monarchical Istanbul government to form one body at the Conference of London in 1921. (25) However, the leader in Ankara, Mustafa Kemal, refused the offer, and the two governments sent separate delegations to the conference, with Ahmet Tevfik Pasha himself leading the Istanbul delegation and Bekir Sami Kunduh leading the Ankara delegation. (25) However, once he arrived in London, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, in a surprising move, proclaimed that the Ankara government indeed was the sole rightful government of Turkey and allowed Bekir Sami to be the only representative at the conference. (25)

Smyrna

Sakarya broke the Greek lines (9) and Kemal followed this up with an offensive on August (15,16) 26–September 9, (15) 1922. (15,16) In August 1922, Atatürk launched an all-out attack on the Greek lines at Afyonkarahisar in the (16) Battle of Dumlupınar (14,16) that (16) pushed the Greeks into a full-scale retreat to the sea at Izmir. (9,15) [OR] Smyrna, (9,19) where Turkish revenge awaited. (19) The Allies, ignoring the extent of Atatürk’s successes, hoped to impose a modified version of the Treaty of Sèvres as a peace settlement on Ankara, but the proposal was rejected. (16) As the last Greek troops evacuated Smyrna on the evening of Friday 8th September, the first elements of Mustafa Kemal’s forces, a Turkish cavalry squadron, made its way into the city. (19) Turkish forces with Mustafa Kemal at the head (9,16,20) [OR] led by Mürsel Pasha and then Nureddin Pasha, General of the Turkish First Army, (19) regained control of Smyrna on 9th (16,18) September (9,16) 1922. (15,16) [OR] 1921. (9) On the morning of September 9th, no fewer than twenty-one Allied warships lay at anchor in Smyrna’s harbor, including the British flagship battleship HMS Iron Duke and her sister King George V, along with their escort of cruisers and destroyers under the command of Admiral Osmond Brock, the American destroyers USS Litchfield, Simpson, and Lawrence (later joined by the Edsall), three French cruisers and two destroyers under the command of Admiral Dumesnil, and an Italian cruiser and destroyer. (19) Sailors and marines from the Allied fleet were landed ashore to guard their respective diplomatic compounds and institutions with strict orders of maintaining neutrality in the event that violence would break out between the Turks and the Christians. (19) On 10th September 1922, Atatürk sent a telegram to the League of Nations saying that the Turkish population was so worked up that the Ankara Government would not be responsible for massacres. (16) It did not help that the Greeks had practiced scorched earth tactics during their retreat. (19) “A fire soon broke out in Smyrna (9) [OR] The Greek and Armenian parts of Smyrna were deliberately set on fire (19) which, along with looting and rampaging Turkish soldiers, claimed the lives of thousands of Greek and Armenian residents.” (9) The Turks slaughtered between 50,000 and 100,000 (19) [OR] thousands of Greek and Armenian residents. (9,19) The lucky ones (9,19) roughly 200,000 additional Greeks and Armenians (9) were evacuated by allied ships, (9,19) never to return. (9) When the war was over Kemal resisted the pressures of historic enmities or atrocity-mongering between the societies. (16) In spite of Turkish animosity against the Greeks, Kemal showed acute sensitivity to even the slightest allusion to these tensions; at one point, he ordered the removal of a painting showing a Turkish soldier plunging his bayonet to a Greek soldier by stating, “What a revolting scene!” (16)

Chanak, September 1922

After the recapture of Izmir (Smyrna) on 9th September the Turks were advancing on Constantinople in the neutral zone. (9,18) Kemal intended to push the Greek armies out of Turkey and (17) restore Turkish rule in the Allied occupied territories of Turkey, primarily in Constantinople (now Istanbul) and Eastern Thrace. (9,17) Turkish troops marched against British and French positions in the Dardanelles neutral zone (17) at Chanak (Çanakkale, a city at the Anatolian side of the Dardanelles Strait), (17,18) and threatened to attack it. (18) The British Cabinet met on September 15th, 1922 and decided that British forces should maintain their position (18) On 16th September, in the absence of Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon, (18) certain Cabinet ministers (17,18) probably including Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and Winston Churchill (17) issued a communiqué threatening Turkey with a declaration of war (17,18) by Britain and the Dominions, on the grounds that Turkey had violated the Treaty of Sèvres, (18) For a time, war between Britain and Turkey seemed possible. (17) Prime Minister David Lloyd George had not fully consulted the Dominion prime ministers, and unlike the case eight years earlier, when World War I broke out, Canada in particular did not automatically consider itself active in the conflict. (18) Canada refused to agree. (17) On 18th September, on his return to London, Curzon pointed out that this would enrage the Prime Minister of France, Raymond Poincaré and left for Paris to attempt to smooth things over. (18) French minister Raymond (17) Poincaré, however, had also already ordered the withdrawal of the French detachment at Chanak, but persuaded the Turks to respect the neutral zone. (18) The other Dominion Prime Ministers also gave no support, nor did the Serbs, Romania (18) or Italy (17,18) British public opinion did not want a war. (17,18) The British military did not either, and the top general on the scene, Sir Charles Harington, refused to relay an ultimatum to the Turks because he counted on a negotiated settlement. (17) Curzon reached Paris on September 20th, and after several angry meetings with Poincaré, reached agreement to negotiate an armistice with the Turks. (18) The Conservatives in Britain’s coalition government refused to follow Lloyd George. (17) On 23rd September, the British cabinet decided to abandon East Thrace to the Turks (18) rather than fight, and agreed to negotiate a new peace treaty. (9) On 28th September, Mustafa Kemal told the British, he had ordered his troops to avoid any incident at Chanak and agreed to a peace negotiation, nominating Mudanya as the venue. (18) They sent invitations to both the sultan’s government in Istanbul and Mustafa Kemal’s government in Ankara. (9) Damit Ferid Pasha was dismissed on 30th September. (24) The parties met there on 3rd October. (18) Turkey, (9,17) having overwhelmed the Greeks, (6,7) agreed to a negotiated settlement that gave it the territory it wanted, (9,17) two hours before British forces were due to attack. (18) The Turks may have been persuaded to agree by the arrival of British reinforcements. (18) The handling of the crisis by the British cabinet was a major contributor to the downfall of British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. (18)

Victory, September 1922

At the end of August (7) 1922, (5,7) [OR] by July 1923 (7) [OR] By the following autumn (11) the Turkish armies won their ultimate victory. (6,7) [OR] victories known as The Great Attack, (12) known as the Commander-in-Chief Battle (12,14) and the Great Victory (August 26th-September 9th, 1922). (12,14) The Assembly’s successful managing of the Turkish War of Independence accelerated the foundation of the new Turkish State. (12) With Anatolia rid of most of the Allies, (15) and before a peace conference could begin, (9) the Grand National Assembly in Ankara passed a resolution (9,15) at the behest of Mustafa Kemal, on November (13,15) 1st, (15,26) 1922, (13,15) declaring that the sultan’s rule had already ended. (9,15) On the morning of (21) November 17th 1922 (15,21) the last Ottoman sultan (9,15) Mehmed VI, (15) fearful for his life, (9) fled (9,15) his palace in a British ambulance (9) [OR] on board the British gunship Malaya. and went to Malta. (21) Even after his dismissal, (24) and the formation of a new Ottoman Government under Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, (24,26) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha met with his government. (25) With the sultan Mehmet VI gone and unable to find a reason to hold their offices any longer, the government began to resign one by one, and Ahmet Tevfik Pasha resigned three days after the abolition on 4th November 1922. (25) Within a few weeks, the Turkish mainland was completely liberated and an armistice signed. (7) The War of Independence had ended. (12) Damat Ferit Pasha remained widely disliked (especially in Anatolia) and with the Turkish victory in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), he fled to Europe. (24)

Treaty of Lausanne

The Allies invited the Ankara government to discussions that resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, (15) and the Conference of Lausanne began on 21st November 1922. (16) Turkey, represented by İsmet İnönü of the GNA, refused any proposal that would compromise Turkish sovereignty, such as the control of Turkish finances, the Capitulations, the Straits and other issues. (16) Although the conference halted on 4 February, it continued after 23 April mainly on the economic issues. (16) Subsequently, on July (9,11) 24th (11,12) 1923, (9,11) The national government (7,11) signed the Lausanne (5,7) [OR] Lozanne (13) Treaty (5,7) with Great Britain, France, Greece, Italy, and others. (7) The GNA was recognised as the government of Turkey, (16) which was in turn recognised as a fully sovereign Republic. (9,11) The Treaty of Lausanne revised the peace settlement made at Versailles, (5,12) freeing the country from being controlled by other countries. (6,12) It fixed the European border of Turkey at the Maritsa River in eastern Thrace. (15) Treaty of Lausanne signed by Turkey and the Allies excludes all mention of Armenia or the Armenians. (22) British and French forces were ultimately withdrawn from the neutral zone (Chanak) in summer 1923, following the ratification of the Treaty. (18) On 13th August 1923, Atatürk was re-elected Speaker of the Grand National Assembly. (13) The nationalists occupied Istanbul on October (15,26) 2nd (15) [OR] 6th (25) 1923. (15,26) Damat Ferit Pasha died in Nice, France, on the same day. (24) He was buried in the city of Sidon, Lebanon. (24) Ankara was named the capital, and (15) on October 29th the Turkish republic was proclaimed, (15,16) and since then Republic Day has been celebrated as a national holiday on this date. (16) Turkey was now in complete control of its territory and sovereignty. (15) [OR] The Treaty included the Lausanne Straits Agreement, which stated that the Dardanelles should remain open to all commercial vessels: seizure of foreign military vessels was subject to certain limitations during peacetime, and, even as a neutral state, Turkey could not limit any military passage during wartime. The waterway was to be demilitarized, and its management left to the Straits Commission. The demilitarized zone heavily restricted Turkey’s domination and sovereignty over the Straits. The defence of Constantinople was impossible without having the sovereignty over the water that passed through it. (16)

The Republic of Turkey

In mid-October, Ankara (7) once a provincial town deep in Anatolia, (16) became the capital of the new Turkish State. (7) On October 29th (7,10) 1923 (5,6) the Grand National Assembly (9) proclaimed the Republic of Turkey (8,9) and unanimously (12) elected Mustafa Kemal as its first president. (7,9) [OR] On August 13th, 1923, Ataturk was re-elected President of Turkey. (12) In accordance with the Constitution, presidential elections were repeated once every four years. (12) The Turkish Grand National Assembly re-elected Atatürk as president in 1927, 1931 and 1935. (12) Turkey became a secular Republic (5,6) no longer led by hereditary or religious leaders. (6) On October 30, 1923, the Republic’s first government was established by İsmet İnönü. (12) The Turkish Republic started to develop on the principles of ‘Sovereignty unconditionally and unrestrictedly belongs to the nation’ and ‘Peace at home, peace in the world’. (12)

Marriage and Personal Life

Atatürk’s personal life was a simple one. (12) Before being in a nuptial relationship, he was speculated to be in a romantic relationship with two women – Eleni Karinte and Fikriye Hanim. (10) on January 29th (10,12) 1923 he married (4,10) a Western-educated woman (15) Latife (4,10) Hanım (15) [OR] Usakligil (4,10) in İzmir. (12) Together they went on many trips throughout the country, (12) but the union was not a happy one and (10,16) after frequent arguments (16) the two were divorced (15,16) [OR] separated (10,12) on August 5th (12,16) 1925. (10,12) They had thirteen children (4) [OR] He never had any children. (9) [OR] he had no biological children, (9,10) but he loved children very much (12) and is said to have adopted (10,12) thirteen (12) [OR] ten (12) children, 12 daughters and one son (10) [OR] 8 daughters and two sons: (12) Afet (İnan), (12) Sabiha (10,12) (Gökçen (12) OR Gokcen (10)), Fikriye, Ülkü, Nebile, Rukiye, Zehra, (12) and a shepherd boy (13) named Mustafa, (12,13) and took two boys called Abdurrahim (12,13) Tunçak (13) and İhsan (12,13) under his protection, (13) and prepared a bright future for them. (12) Videos published on Youtube, and defended by Google alleged that Atatürk was a Freemason, and a homosexual. (10) Sabiha became famous for being world’s first female fighter pilot and Turkey’s first female pilot. (10,16) In 1937, he donated his farms to the treasury and some of his property to the Ankara and Bursa Municipalities. (12) From his estate, he spared shares for his sister, his adopted children and the Turkish Language and History Associations. (12) He enjoyed reading, listening to music, dancing, horseback riding and swimming very much. (12) He had an extreme interest in the Zeybek (Western Anatolian) folk dances, the Rumeli (Balkan Peninsula) folk songs and wrestling. (12) He enjoyed playing backgammon and billiards. (12) He put great value on his horse named Sakarya7 and his dog Fox. (12) He built up a rich library. (12) He invited statesmen, scientists and artists to dinners and debated the current issues of the country with them. (12) He paid great attention to his appearance. (12) He loved nature very much. (12) He frequently went to the Atatürk Forest Farm and personally participated in the activities. (12) He spoke French and German. (12)

The Kemalist Reforms

Government

Highlighting the public’s lack of knowledge regarding Atatürk’s intentions, the public cheered: “We are returning to the days of the first caliphs.” (16) Kemal gave Turkey a democratic constitution, (6,9) and joined the League of Nations. (9) Atatürk wanted a “direct government by the Assembly” and visualized a representative democracy, parliamentary sovereignty, where the National Parliament would be the ultimate source of power. (16) In the following years, he altered his stance somewhat; the country needed an immense amount of reconstruction, and that “direct government by the Assembly” could not survive in such an environment. (16) There was a high degree of consensus among the ruling elite about the goals of the society, (15) but he established a single party regime, (5,9) and ruled as a dictator. (3,9) His instrument was the Republican People’s Party, formed on August 9, 1923, to replace the defence-of-rights associations. (15) He frequently went on trips throughout the country to check on the state activities on sight. (12) He gave orders to relevant officials concerning delayed activities. (12) As President, he hosted the heads of state, prime ministers and commanders of foreign countries who paid visits to Turkey. (12) Between October 15th and 20th, 1927, he gave his Great Speech, which narrated the War of Independence and the foundation of the Republic, and on October 29th, 1933, he delivered his Tenth Year Speech. (12) His regime lasted almost without interruption until 1945. (5)

Opposition

In 1925, the population was largely illiterate and disparate. (16) Turkey was in ruins, reconstruction was difficult, poverty was everywhere and people were in pain, which fed separatist violence. (16) Mustafa Kemal embarked upon the reform of his country, his goal being to bring it into the 20th century, but his ambitious program of forced modernization was not accomplished without strain and bloodshed. (15) The revolutionaries faced challenges from the supporters of the old Ottoman regime, and also from the supporters of newer ideologies such as communism and fascism. (16) “Friendship with Russia,” said Atatürk, “is not to adopt their ideology of communism for Turkey.” He declared: “Communism is a social issue. (16) Social conditions, religion, and national traditions of our country confirm the opinion that Russian Communism is not applicable in Turkey.” The abolition of the caliphate and other cultural reforms were met with fierce opposition. (16) The conservative elements were not happy and they launched attacks on the Kemalist reformists. (16) In 1924, while the “Issue of Mosul” was on the table, Sheikh Said began to organize the Sheikh Said Rebellion. (16) Sheikh Said was a wealthy Kurdish tribal chief of a local Naqshbandi order. (16) He emphasized the issue of religion; he not only opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, but also the adoption of civil codes based on Western models, the closure of religious orders, the ban on polygamy, and the new obligatory civil marriage. (16) Sheikh stirred up his followers against the policies of the government, which he considered anti-Islamic. (16) In an effort to restore Islamic law, Sheik’s forces moved through the countryside, seized government offices and marched on the important cities of Elazığ and Diyarbakır. (16) Members of the government saw the Sheikh Said Rebellion as an attempt at a counter-revolution. (16) They urged immediate military action to prevent its spread. (16) The “Law for the Maintenance of Public Order” was passed to deal with the rebellion on 4 March 1925. (16) He closed opposition newspapers and suppressed leftist workers’ organizations, (9) At times he stifled opposition with an authoritarian hand. (9) In June (15) 1926 a plot by several disgruntled politicians (15,16) in the remaining cells of the CUP (27) to assassinate Atatürk was discovered, (15,16) It originated with a former deputy who had opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, (16) and the 13 (15) ringleaders were tried and hanged. (15,27) The pattern of organized opposition, however, was broken. (16) There were other trials and executions, but under Atatürk the country was steadfastly steered toward becoming a modern state with a minimum of repression. (15) As many of his goals were achieved, however, many Turks wished to see a more democratic regime. (15) Atatürk even experimented in 1930 with the creation of an opposition party led by his longtime associate Ali Fethi. (15,16) It succeeded and grew rapidly. (15,16) On 23 December 1930, a chain of violent incidents occurred, starting with the rebellion of Islamic fundamentalists in Menemen, a small town in the Aegean region. (16) and overwhelming success caused Atatürk to squash it. (15) [OR] In November 1930, Ali Fethi Okyar dissolved his own party. (16) Atatürk’s biographer Andrew Mango said: “Between the two wars, democracy could not be sustained in many relatively richer and better-educated societies. (16) Atatürk’s enlightened authoritarianism left a reasonable space for free private lives. (16) More could not have been expected in his lifetime.” (16)

Spirit of Reforms

His 15 year Presidency is a saga of dramatic modernization. (7) ‘The civilized world is far ahead of us,’ he told an audience in October 1926, ‘We have no choice but to catch up.’ (9) With indefatigable determination, (7) banking on the reputation he had gained from his military background, (10) he was responsible for (1,2) many (1,3) sweeping progressive (2,3) reforms and for the modernisation of Turkey. (1,2) It was one of the world’s swiftest and most effective modernization campaigns ever. (11) His program was embodied in the party’s “Six Arrows”: republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism (state-owned and state-operated industrialization aimed at making Turkey self-sufficient as a 20th-century industrialized state), secularism, and revolution. (15) He instituted a rigorous program of political, economic, and cultural reform. (8) He created a new political and legal system (7) similar to those arising from Western civilization, as in Europe or the United States. (6) This amounted to a social and political revolution (3,5) a permanent state of revolution, meaning continuing change in the state and society. (15) Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism. (8)

Five Areas of Reform

Political Reforms

Kemal proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire (5,7) His first key step as the president was to secularise the country from being a Muslim state (10) turning it into a secular, (2,3) industrial (8) nation (2,4) -state. (4,8) On November 1st, 1922, the Caliphate8 and the Sultanate were separated from each other and the sovereignty of the sultans was abolished. (12) Abolishing the sultanate was relatively easy because the survival of the Caliphate at the time satisfied the partisans of the sultanate. (16) By the consensus of the Muslim majority in early centuries, the caliphate was the core political concept of Sunni Islam. (16) The Caliph was the theoretical successor to the prophet Muhammad and spiritual leader of the worldwide Muslim community, (9) Although Turkey was now almost homogeneously Muslim, (9) on March 3rd, 1924, (15,16) He abolished the Caliphate, (7,9) to reform the political system and promote national sovereignty. (10) Its powers (10,16) within Turkey (16) were transferred to the GNA. (10,16) Turkey did not accept the re-establishment of the caliphate and perceived it as an attack to its basic existence. (16) However, elsewhere, there were repercussions for all of Islam. (11,16) Other Muslim nations debated the validity of Turkey’s unilateral abolition of the caliphate as they decided whether they should confirm the Turkish action or appoint a new caliph. (16) A “Caliphate Conference” was held in Cairo in May 1926 and a resolution was passed declaring the caliphate “a necessity in Islam”, but failed to implement this decision. (16) Two other Islamic conferences were held in Mecca (1926) and Jerusalem (1931) (16) but failed to reach a consensus, (11,16) and no new caliph was appointed. (11) Thus, the administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire were broken off. (12) It was the same with all Islamic institutions, (5,9) such as religious courts (9) and schools, (9,10) He removed the constitutional requirement that Islam should be the state religion. (3) He mandated that the call to prayer be in Turkish rather than Arabic. (9) He made Sunday a day of rest instead of Friday. (9) He lifted a ban on alcohol (9) and adopted the Gregorian, calendar in place of the Islamic calendar (5,9) In the years following 1926, Atatürk introduced a radical departure from previous reformations established by the Ottoman Empire. (16) For the first time in history, Islamic law was separated from secular law, and restricted to matters of religion. (16) He stated: We must liberate our concepts of justice, our laws and our legal institutions from the bonds which, even though they are incompatible with the needs of our century, still hold a tight grip on us. (16) On 1 March 1926, the Turkish penal code was passed. (16) It was modelled after the Italian Penal Code. (16) Abolition of the religious courts followed on April 8th. (15) [OR] On 4 October 1926, Islamic courts were closed. (16)

Social Reforms

During Atatürk’s presidency (8,13) between 1926 and 1934 he asserted (13) equal civil and political rights (8,10) for men and women (13) This represented the emancipating of women. (5,7) The president saw women as an essential part of the workforce if Turkey was to become a wealthy modern nation. (11) Ottoman practice discouraged social interaction between men and women in keeping with Islamic practice of sex segregation. (16) Atatürk needed a new civil code to establish his second major step of giving freedom to women. (16) The first part was the education of girls and was established with the unification of education. (16) On 4 October 1926, the new Turkish civil code passed. (16) It was modelled after the Swiss Civil Code. (16) Under the new code, women gained equality with men in such matters as inheritance and divorce. (16) Atatürk did not consider gender a factor in social organization. (16) According to his view, society marched towards its goal with men and women united. (16) He believed that it was scientifically impossible for him to achieve progress and to become civilized if the gender separation continued as in Ottoman times. (16) During a meeting he declaimed: To the women: Win for us the battle of education and you will do yet more for your country than we have been able to do. (16) It is to you that I appeal. (16) To the men: If henceforward the women do not share in the social life of the nation, we shall never attain to our full development. (16) We shall remain irremediably backward, incapable of treating on equal terms with the civilizations of the West. (16) The emancipation of women was encouraged by (15) The emancipation was set in motion by a number of laws. (15) In particular, women were given voting rights (8,9) in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3rd April 1930 and a few years later, (8) in December (15) 1934, full universal suffrage, (8,15) earlier than most other countries in the world. (8) They could vote for parliamentary members and were made eligible to hold parliamentary seats. (15) As a result, women’s emancipation was strengthened by the abolition of polygamy, marriage was made a civil contract, (15) and they could divorce their husbands. (11) Divorce was recognized as a civil action. (15) Turkish women were taught not only child care, dress-making and household management but also skills needed to join the economy outside the home. (16) Turkish women received equal rights to inherit property. (11) A century before, Sultan Mahmud II had begun a series of dress reforms in 1826 as part of the Ottoman Empire’s modernization effort. (16) Kemal carried this idea further. (16) On 25th November 1925 he instituted a Reform of Headgear and Dress. (13) He changed the national dress, (5,7) introducing western forms of dress, (3,5) and prohibiting the wearing of headscarves (9,10) among public sector employees (9) and the wearing of turbans (10) and fez hats. (9,1)) Thereafter Turks wore Western-style headdress. (15) Mustafa Kemal went on a speaking tour of Anatolia during which he wore a European-style hat, setting an example for the Turkish people. (15) In Istanbul and elsewhere there was a run on materials for making hats. (15) They were freed from the obligation to wear the veil. (10) but even though he personally promoted modern dress for women, Atatürk never made specific reference to women’s clothing in the law, as he believed that women would adapt to the new clothing styles of their own free will. (16) He was frequently photographed on public business with his wife Lâtife Uşaklıgil, who covered her head in accordance with Islamic tradition. (16) He was also frequently photographed on public business with women wearing modern Western clothes. (16) But it was Atatürk’s adopted daughters, Sabiha Gökçen and Afet İnan, who provided the real role model for the Turkish women of the future. (16) He wrote: “The religious covering of women will not cause difficulty … (16) This simple style [of headcovering] is not in conflict with the morals and manners of our society.” (16) In the same year, the religious brotherhoods, strongholds of conservatism, were outlawed. (15) He said: ‘The Turkish republic cannot be a country of sheiks, dervishes, and disciples’. (16) and he closed mausoleums and dervish lodges on 30th November 1925. (13) He abolished titles and by-names (26 November 1934) and adopted the international calendar, hours and measurements (1925 – 1931). (13)

Legal Reforms

Between 1924 and 1937 (13) Kemal abolished (9,13) the ministry of (9) canon law (9,13) and pious foundations. (9) Almost overnight the whole system of Islamic law was discarded. (15) In 1926, he abolished the Islamic courts and (11) instituted secular civil law throughout Turkey (11,13) by adoption of Turkish Civil Code (13) [OR] Western legal codes (5,7) and other laws. (13) From February to June 1926 the Swiss civil code, the Italian penal code, and the German commercial code were adopted wholesale. (15)

Reforms in the fields of education and culture

His educational reform (3,7) known as the Unification of education, dated 3rd March 1924.(13) The religious schools were dismantled, (15) [OR] Ataturk’s reforms did not see the end of religious schools in Turkey; they were moved to higher education until later governments restored them to their former position in secondary after Atatürk’s death. (16) Primary education was made free, (8,10) secular (7,10) and compulsory, opening thousands of new schools (8,10) for both girls and boys (11) all over the country. (8,10) In the summer of 1924, Atatürk invited American educational reformer John Dewey to Ankara to advise him on how to reform Turkish education. (16) From now on what mattered at school was science and education; Islam was concentrated in mosques and religious places. (16) The new schools came under the governance of the Ministry of National Education. (10) A reform of truly revolutionary proportions took place (15) on 1st (13) November 1928 (13,15) when he replaced Arabic (3,5) [OR] Ottoman Turkish script (8,9) for written Turkish (11) (in which the Ottoman Turkish language had been written for centuries) (15) with the Latin alphabet. (3,5) When he asked the experts how long it would take, in their professional opinion, to implement the new alphabet into the Turkish language, most of the professors and linguists said between three and five years. (16) Atatürk was said to have scoffed and openly stated, “We shall do it in three to five months”. (16) Literacy rates improved (9,15) from 10.6% in 1927 to 22.4% in 1940. (16) Turkey achieved one of the highest literacy rates in the Middle East. (15) Once again Mustafa Kemal went into the countryside, and with chalk and a blackboard he demonstrated the new alphabet to the Turkish people and explained how the letters should be pronounced. (15) Education benefited from this reform, as the youth of Turkey, cut off from the past with its emphasis on religion, were encouraged to take advantage of new educational opportunities that gave access to the Western scientific and humanistic traditions. (15) Atatürk’s reforms on education made education much more accessible: between 1923 and 1938, the number of students attending primary schools increased by 224% from 342,000 to 765,000, the number of students attending middle schools increased by 12.5 times, from around 6,000 to 74,000 and the number of students attending high schools increased by almost 17 times, from 1,200 to 21,000. (16) He promoted the arts (7,13) and sciences. (7) In 1927, the State Art and Sculpture Museum (Turkish: Ankara Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) opened its doors. (16) The museum highlighted sculpture, which was little practised in Turkey owing to the Islamic tradition of avoiding idolatry. (16) Atatürk believed that “culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic,” and described modern Turkey’s ideological thrust as “a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal.” (16) He included both his own nation’s creative legacy and what he saw as the admirable values of global civilization. (16) He established Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931 – 1932) by his Regulation of university education. (31st May 1933) (16)

Surnames

By the Law on family names of 21st June (13) [OR] on November 24th, (12,13) 1934 (7,12) [OR] In 1935, (5) surnames were introduced in Turkey. (5,7) He was given (5,7) by parliament (7,8) [OR] He required all Turks to choose a surname, (9) and took (6,9) the name Atatürk, meaning (5,6) grandfather’ or ‘ancestor (11) [OR] ‘Father of (5,6) the Turks’. (5,7) [OR] All Turks (6) [OR]Father Turk’. (9) [OR] ‘Father of Turks’. (12,13) İsmet assumed the surname İnönü in memory of his two important victories on that river. (15) The Surname law forbade certain surnames that contained connotations of foreign cultures, nations, tribes, and religions. (16) As a result, many ethnic Armenians, Greeks, and Kurds were forced to adopt last names of Turkish rendition. (16) Names ending with “yan, of, ef , viç, is, dis , poulos, aki, zade, shvili, madumu, veled, bin” (names that denote non-Turkish origins) could not be registered and were replaced by “-oğlu.” (16)

Economic Reforms

He helped develop small and large scale businesses. (10) He abolished the tithe (13) During the Great Depression, he established the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, the main purpose of which was to control exchange rates. (10) In the period 1933-1937 (13) he supervised a first and second five year economic plan. (10,13) He advanced agriculture (7,13) by the establishment of model farms. (13) He encouraged industry. (7,9) by establishing industrial facilities, and passing a law for incentives for the Industry. (13) He developed transportation networks. (13) Despite his efforts, the gap between Atatürk’s goals and the achievements of the socio-political structure of the country was not closed. (16)

Turkicisation

His government carried out a policy of Turkicisation trying to create a homogeneous and unified nation. (8) Even before he became president, Greece agreed to send some 380,000 Muslims to Turkey in exchange for over 1 million Greek Orthodox practitioners. (9) This was achieved through a treaty of friendship signed on December 30, 1930. (15) The pre-Islamic culture of the Turks became the subject of extensive research, and particular emphasis was laid upon Turkish culture widespread before the Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. (16) He instigated study of Anatolian civilizations—Phrygians and Lydians, Sumerians and Hittites. (16) To attract current public attention to past cultures, he personally named the “Sümerbank” (1932) after the Sumerians and the “Etibank” (1935) after the Hittites. (16) He also stressed the folk arts of the countryside as a wellspring of Turkish creativity. (16) Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pressured to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities had to be changed to Turkish renditions. (8) Minority populations were exchanged on both sides, borders were set, and military problems such as naval equality in the eastern Mediterranean were ironed out. (15) The forced emigration of Armenians continued. (9)The 1934 Resettlement Law (also known as the Law no. 2510) was a policy adopted by the Turkish government which set forth the basic principles of immigration. (16) The law, however, is regarded by some as a policy of assimilation of non-Turkish minorities through a forced and collective resettlement. (16) He bottled up any attempts at Kurdish autonomy. (9) In February 1925 the Kurds of southwestern Anatolia raised the banner of revolt in the name of Islam. (15) It took two months to put the revolt down; its leader Şeyh Said was then hanged. (15)

Foreign Policy

After having settled Turkey firmly within its national borders and set it on the path of modernization, Atatürk sought to develop his country’s foreign policy in similar fashion. (15) His foreign policy rested on his motto of ‘peace at home and peace in the world’. (8,10) He pursued a policy of neutrality, establishing friendly relations with Turkey’s neighbours. (5) During his presidency, he resolved all foreign issues in a peaceful manner, not once using military might to solve problems. (10) First and foremost, he decided that Turkey would not pursue any irredentist claims except for the eventual incorporation of the Alexandretta9 region, which he felt was included within the boundaries set by the National Pact. (15) Atatürk also sought reconciliation with Greece. (15,16)

Iraq

In 1923, Atatürk tried to persuade the GNA that accepting the arbitration of the League of Nations at the Treaty of Lausanne over Mosul did not mean relinquishing Mosul, but rather waiting for a time when Turkey might be stronger. (16) The artificially drawn border had an unsettling effect on the population on both sides. (16) Later, it was claimed that Turkey began where the oil ends, as the border was drawn by the British geophysicists based on the oil reserves. (16) Atatürk did not want this separation. (16) The British Foreign Secretary attempted to disclaim any existence of oil in the Mosul area. (16) On 23 January 1923, Lord Curzon argued that the existence of oil was no more than hypothetical. (16) However, according to Armstrong, “England wanted oil: Mosul and Kurds were the key.” (16) He settled matters with Great Britain in a treaty signed on June 5, 1926. (15) It called for Turkey to renounce its claims to Mosul in return for a 10 percent interest in the oil produced there. (15)

Iran

Atatürk and Reza Shah had a common approach regarding British imperialism and its influence in their region, creating a slow but continuous rapprochement between Ankara and Tehran. (16) Both governments sent diplomatic missions and messages of friendship to each other during the Turkish War of Independence. (16) The policy of the Ankara government in this period was to give moral support in order to assure Iranian independence and territorial integrity. (16) The relations were strained after the abolishment of the Caliphate. (16) Iran’s Shi’a clergy did not accept Kemal’s position. (16) Iranian religious power centres perceived the real motive behind Atatürk’s reforms was to undermine the power of the clergy. (16) By the mid-1930s, Reza Shah’s efforts had upset the clergy throughout Iran, thus widening the gap between religion and government. (16) Atatürk feared the occupation and dismemberment of Iran as a multi-ethnic/multi-tribal society by Russia or Great Britain. (16) By the Saadabad Pact of 1937 the signatories undertook to preserve their common frontiers, to consult together in all matters of common interest and to commit no aggression against one another’s territory. (16) The treaty united the Afghan king’s call for greater Oriental-Middle Eastern cooperation, Reza Shah’s goal in securing relations with Turkey that would help Iran free itself from Soviet and British influence, and Atatürk’s foreign policy of securing stability in the region. (16) [OR]

EdwardVlllAtaturkHeader

EdwardVlllAtaturk

Britain

During the second half of the 1930s, Atatürk tried to establish a closer relationship with Britain and other major western powers, which caused displeasure on the part of the Soviets. (16) Turkish Prime-Minister İsmet İnönü was very conscious of foreign policy issues. (16) During the second half of the 1930s, the risks of a pro-British policy put Inonu and Ataturk at odds. (16)

Russia

The second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Volume 20, 1953) was unequivocally critical of Kemal’s policies in the last years of his rule, calling his domestic policies “anti-popular” and his foreign course as aimed at rapprochement with the “imperialist powers.” (16)

The Straits:

In March 1936, Hitler’s reoccupation of the Rhineland gave Atatürk the opportunity to resume full control over the Straits. (16) “The situation in Europe”, he declared “is highly appropriate for such a move. (16) We shall certainly achieve it”. (16)

Italy

The most important factor in driving Turkish foreign policy from the mid-1930s onwards was the fear of Italy. (16) Benito Mussolini had frequently proclaimed his intention to make the entire Mediterranean Mare Nostrum. (16) Both the Turks and the various Balkan states felt threatened by Italian ambitions. (16) The Balkan Pact of 1937 was negotiated by Atatürk with Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia. (16) This mutual-defence agreement intended to guarantee the signatories’ territorial integrity and political independence against attack by another Balkan state such as Bulgaria or Albania. (16) It countered the increasingly aggressive foreign policy of fascist Italy and the effect of a potential Bulgarian alignment with Nazi Germany. (16) Atatürk thought of the Balkan Pact as a medium of balance in the relations with the European countries. (16) He was particularly anxious to establish a region of security and alliances in the west of Turkey and in Balkan Europe, which would extend as far as Dobruja. (16) An effect of the Balkan Pact was to deter Mussolini from aggressions in the Eastern Mediterranean. (16) The Balkan Pact turned out to be ineffective for reasons that were beyond Atatürk’s control. (16) What he wanted to prevent with the Balkan Pact was realized by Bulgaria’s attempt to put the Dobruja issue into the agenda after a series of international events ending with the Italian invasion of Albania on 7 April 1939. (16) These conflicts spread rapidly, triggering World War II. (16) The goal of Atatürk, to protect southeast Europe, failed with the dissolution of the pact. (16)

Death and Posthumous

The Turkish government bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal several high-profile decorations such as Fifth Class Knight Order of the Medjidie, Silver Imtiyaz Medal, Silver Liakat Medal, Golden Liakat Medal, Second Class Knight Order of Osmanieh, Second Class Knight Order of the Medjidie, Golden Imtiyaz Medal, First Class Knight Order of the Medjidie, Gallipoli Star, Medal of Independence and Murassa Order Other countries that honoured him include France’s National Order of the Legion of Honour, Bulgaria’ Commander Grand Cross Order Of Saint Alexander, Germany’s 1st and 2nd Class Iron Cross, Prussia’s 1st Class Order of the Crown Prussia, Afghanistan’s Aluyulala Order of Kingdom of…? (10) In his later years Atatürk grew more remote from the Turkish people. (15) He had the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, formerly a main residence of the sultans, refurbished and spent more time there. (15) Always a heavy drinker (9,15) (he drank half a litre of rakı a day (16)) who ate little, (15) he began to decline in health, (10,15) starting 1937. (10) Too late, (15) he was diagnosed with cirrhosis of liver, (10,11) due to excessive alcohol consumption: (11) He suffered from serious illness in 1938 while on a trip to Yalova. (10) He bore the pain of (15) an illness of the last few months of his life (7,15) with great character and dignity. (15) he died (1,2) at the age of 57 (8,10) at 9:05 a.m. (12,15) on November 10th (2,4) 1938, (1,2) in his bedroom (9) at the Dolmabahçe Palace (2,8), in Istanbul, Turkey. (2,9), His funeral Mustafa Kemal was honoured with a state funeral (8,10) attended by representatives from 17 countries. (10) It was a moment of sorrow (10,15) and pride for Turkey (10) There were enormous outpourings of grief from the Turkish people. (15) His deceased body was brought (12,15) with a ceremony (12) through Istanbul and from there to Ankara (15) to its temporary place of rest at the (12,15) Ethnography Museum of Ankara (10,12) on November 21st 1938. (12) 15 years later, on November 10th, 1953, he was buried (10,12) in a 42-ton sarcophagus (10) with a magnificent ceremony (12) in the Anıtkabir mausoleum (10,12) that overlooks Ankara. (10,15) There is a museum devoted to his memory. (15) He was replaced by İsmet İnönü, prime minister during most of Atatürk’s rule (8,9) who continued his policies of secularization and westernization. (9) His iconic mausoleum, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honour of his famous expression ‘Peace at Home, Peace in the World’. (8) In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk’s birth, his memory was honoured by the UN and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as ‘the leader of the first struggle given against colonialism and imperialism’ and a ‘remarkable promoter of the sense of understanding between peoples and durable peace between the nations of the world and that he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation between peoples without distinction’. (8) Visitors to Turkey are often surprised by (6) the importance given to Atatürk in present-day Turkey. (6,9) He is omnipresent. (15) His portrait is in every home and place of business and on the postage and bank notes. (15) His words are chiselled on important buildings. (15) Statues of him abound. (15) Turkish politicians, regardless of party affiliation, claim to be the inheritors of Atatürk’s mantle, but none has matched his breadth of vision, dedication, and selflessness. (15) Atatürk is commemorated by many memorials throughout Turkey and numerous countries all over the world, where place names are named in honour of him. (8) Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk’s name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. (8) Few countries have such a person in their history. (6) He was the national liberator and the Father of modern Turkey. (7) He inspired many later leaders, like Gamal Abdel Nasser and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. (6) His six principles still serve today as a sign post for establishing a democratic government: these were

  1. Republicanism: Replacing the hereditary monarchy with an elected parliament.

  2. Nationalism: Citizens working together with pride in a common interest.

  3. Secularism: Separating religion from government.

  4. Populism: The equality of all citizens before the law.

  5. Reformism: A constant process of development and modernisation.

  6. Etatism: An economic system combining private enterprise with government-funded monopolies of large industries

Insulting Atatürk’s memory is a crime in Turkey. (9,16) In 2007, YouTube, Geocities, and several blogger webpages were blocked by a Turkish court due to the violation of this law. (16) The YouTube ban in the country lasted for 30 months, in retaliation for four videos on Atatürk. (16) These videos alleged that Atatürk was a Freemason, and was a homosexual, citing a book printed in Belgium on this subject that is currently banned in Turkey. (16) In the last week of October 2010, a German company, following a request from the Turkish Internet Board, exploited YouTube automatic copyright-enforcement mechanism to take down the videos. (16) On 30th October, shortly after the removal, a court lifted the ban. (16) But a few days later, Google concluded that the videos did not infringe copyright and restored them on YouTube. (16) In 2010, the French-based NGO Reporters Without Borders objected to the Turkish laws to protect the memory of Kemal Atatürk, saying they are in contradiction with the current European Union standards of freedom of speech in news media. (16) Islam has re-emerged in recent years as a social and political force. (9)

Next

FRESCI

Foreign and Military

Uniquely successful Ottoman military career; Multinational Empire in dissolution; Replaced Sevres by Lausanne; Gallipoli, Sakarya.

Religion and Ideas

Abolished Caliphate & dervishes; Western humanist ideas prioritised over Islam – sculpture; Turkicisation; Conservative opposition repressed with hangings.

Economic & Financial

Basic lack of raw materials; efforts to maximise cotton production; Central banking and planning;

Social & Cultural

Names; hats; alphabet; education; position of women

Constitutional & Legal

Use of GNA; Democratic constitution but despotic reality; opposition party allowed then repressed; sharia restricted to religion. Western law codes applied.

Individual and Random

‘perfect’; opportunities arise out of dissolution of Ottoman System; Armenian Massacres? visit to Germany; Smyrna; affairs; marriage then divorce; alcoholism; gonorrhoea; cirrhosis; homosexual; freemason; recluse. Fall out with Kâzim before Sakarya.

Points of View

Law preventing criticism; Secular/Muslim; Smyrna and Armenian suspicions: Boris Johnson’s ancestor Ali Kemal, who had written against the Armenian Massacres, was associated with the Grand Vizier’s government which fell, and was then murdered by Kemalist forces and his corpse mockingly given an Armenian name.

Appendix I: Ali Kemal additional biographical notes 1909-1912

[Of interest because he was the great grandfather of British Prime minister Boris Johnson]

Ali_Kemal was unanimously adopted as the candidate to represent the parliamentary constituency of Stambul at a meeting of the Liberal Union on 9 March 1909. (23) After the murder of the editor-in-chief of the Serbestî newspaper, Hasan Fehmi, in April 1909, Ali_Kemal stated that he had warned Ismail Qemali and Rifsat, the assistant editor of Serbestî that they had been condemned by extremists in Salonica. (23) A media storm between the liberal paper İkdam and the conservative Tanin followed, with İkdam accusing Ahmet Rıza Bey of having been in favour of enlightened absolutism, and Tanin, the organ of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) accusing the Liberal Union of being a subversive body, conspiring with Armenians. (23) At that time Ali_Kemal accused Rahmi Bey and Dr Nazım Bey of the Committee of Union and Progress of proposing his murder. (23) These events became known as the 31 March Incident and were followed by the countercoup of 1909, an effort to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire and replace it with an autocracy under Sultan Abdul Hamid II. (23) Soldiers from Salonica deposed Abdul Hamid on 27 April 1909 and his brother Reshad Efendi was proclaimed as Sultan Mehmed V. (23) Ali_Kemal fled to exile in England, where in late 1909, his wife Winifred gave birth to a son, Osman Wilfred Ali_Kemal, at Bournemouth. (23) Shortly after giving birth his wife died of puerperal fever. (23) They already had a daughter named Selma. (23) Ali_Kemal stayed with his mother-in-law Margaret Brun (née Johnson) and with his children, first in Christchurch, near Bournemouth, and then in Wimbledon, London until 1912, when he returned to the Ottoman Empire, soon marrying again. (23)

Appendix II: Kemal, the Armenian Massacres and Smyrna

A law prohibits criticism of Mustafa Kemal in Turkey (9,16) If there had been nothing much to criticise in his life, such a prohibition would not have been necessary. On p. 27 I describe Google’s challenge to this law. I do not see how he can avoid responsibility for either.

Armenian Massacre:

 

ArmenianGenocideRecognitionMap

Figure 2: The Grey areas show where the Genocide is not recognised

  • Enver and Talaat were the prime movers of the Massacre, (22) and Mustafa Kemal has not been linked to the perpetration of the genocide.” (9) BUT

  • Mustafa Kemal took command of a Turkish Army on the Russian front at Diyarbakır (12) during 1916. Massacres are alleged to have been going on all round him, as Figure 3 shows. They were known to the Germans and the Americans: on October 3rd, 1917: Count Wolff-Metternich left his post as ambassador to Turkey, recalled by the German General Staff at the request of Enver because he had protested against the Armenian massacres. (22)

ArmenianGenocideMap

Figure 3: Map showing alleged centres of the genocide, roughly centred on Diyabakir, where Mustafa Kemal was

  • and continued round Aleppo when he was moved there, though the local civilian commander in that area committed suicide rather than face an atrocity trial.

ArmenianGenocide

Figure 4 Armenians killed at Aleppo after the Mudros Armistice, October 1918

  • With secret instructions from the Ankara government to proceed with the physical elimination of Armenia, General Kiazim Karabekir seized half the territories of Armenia in November 1920’ – https://www.armenian-genocide.org/kemal.html

  • Dec 1919 Francois Georges-Picot, former French High Commissioner in Syria, and Mustafa Kemal hold a secret meeting in Sivas concerning the status of Cilicia. Kemal demands that the French Army including the Armenian volunteer forces serving with it be withdrawn. Picot agrees, leaving defenceless the Armenian survivors in Cilicia, who had returned home from their ordeals in the desert. https://www.armenian-genocide.org/1919.html

If you google Armenian massacre, pictures of Turks massacred by Armenians come up:

TurksKilledbyArmenians

Figure 5 Turks killed by Armenians in Diyarbakir in 1915

Smyrna

  • “…the Greeks, who had wreaked havoc on the Turkish population during their march to within 50 miles of Ankara”. (9)

  • the Greeks had practiced scorched earth tactics during their retreat” (19)

  • Turkish forces with Mustafa Kemal at the head (9,16,20) [OR] led by Mürsel Pasha and then Nureddin Pasha, General of the Turkish First Army, (19) entered the town…”
  • ‘Turkish revenge awaited’ (19)
  • On 10th September 1922, Atatürk sent a telegram to the League of Nations saying that the Turkish population was ‘so worked up that the Ankara Government would not be responsible for massacres.’ (16)
  • A fire soon broke out in Smyrna (9) [OR] parts of Smyrna were deliberately set on fire (19) which, along with looting and rampaging Turkish soldiers, claimed the lives of thousands of Greek and Armenian residents.” (9)

  • 21 Allied ships anchored off Smyrna with “orders of maintaining neutrality in the event that violence would break out between the Turks and the Christians. (19)

SmyrnaFire

Figure 6: Smyrna in flames with Allied warship in foreground

Bibliography

Note that 2 and 8 overlap suspiciously. Not allowing corroboration any more. Very heavy overlap in style and content between 12, 13 and 14. AtaturkBibliography

  1. Wiki Chanak
  2. Military Wiki Chanak
  3. http://bulgariaanalytica.org/en/2017/09/23/the-massacre-smyrna/
  4. https://www.greecetravel.com/smyrna/
  5. http://www.turkeyswar.com/whoswho/vahdettin/
  6. https://www.armenian-genocide.org.html In this font

  7. Wikipedia on Boris Johnson’s Ancestor Ali Kemal

  8. Damit Ferid Grand Vizier
  9. Ahmet Tevfik Grand Vizier
  10. Ittihads

1 Wikipedia appears not to know that his father had died some years before.

2 In other words he resisted attempts to restore the Sultan and undo the constitutional reforms of the Young Turks, thus acting consistently with his own subsequent reform programme.

3 Sic? Anafartalar

4 When Mustafa Kemal had been in post three months

5 When he was still in command

6 The Treaty being in August

7 Named after his victory over the Greeks

8 since the early 16th century, the Ottoman sultans had laid claim to the title of caliph of the Muslims (15)

9 Now called Iskenderun

 

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