Friedrich Engels

Figure 1 Engels in 1877

Friedrich Engels

1820-1895

Contents

EngelsHomeFigure 2 Engels’ family home in Barmen

Background

Youth

Friedrich (2,6) [OR] Frederick (4) Engels was born (1,2) on 28th November (2,12) 1820 (1,2) in Barmen, (2,5) an industrial hub (13) in Rhine province (12) in the Kingdom of (2,15) Prussia (2,12) which is now (9,13) a part of Wuppertal in North Rhine-Westphalia, (16) Germany. (6,9) His family was wealthy. (8,9) His father (2,7) also called Friedrich (9,13) was an industrialist (2,7) who owned a (2,7) large (2,17) textile (2,9) factory in Barmen, Prussia, (2,12) now Wuppertal, Germany (17) and was also a partner in (12) [OR] an owner of (17) a cotton plant in (12) Manchester (2,7) [OR] Salford, England. (2,17) His mother was Elisabeth (9,13) “Elise” (17) Franziska Mauritia von Haar, (13,17) (1797–1873). (17) Friedrich was the oldest (7,9) of their eight children. (13)

Adolescence

Though Engels’ parents were Pietistic Protestants, and he too was raised as per their principles, (13,17) at an early age, he developed a profound sense of cynicism toward major societal institutions like religion. (9) At the age of 13, Engels attended grammar school (Gymnasium) in the adjacent city of Elberfeld. (17) Engels began to exhibit radical philosophies from a very young age (12) and his unorthodox beliefs placed a significant strain on his relationship with (9,12) his parents. (12,17) His parents were concerned by his radical ideology (9,12) and their son’s revolutionary activities disappointed them. (17) His mother was highly disappointed with his way of life and feared for him. (13) Engels and his father had very different plans for his career. (12) Friedrich and his father often sparred on this issue, (12,16) and Engels was just as unyielding as his father, (12) but his father still expected he would follow in his footsteps. (9,13) He wanted him to become a businessman (17) and carve out a career in commerce (12,15) in the family business. (15) His relationship with them became strained, and it would be some years before he joined the family firm. (17)

Abandons school

Barmen Figure 3 The industrial town of Barmen in the Wupper Valley

He was considered to be a brilliant mind, quick and sharp in his judgement. (13) In spite of these talents he did not complete his secondary education. (12,13) His parents expected that he would follow his father into a career in the family business. (17) He did not want to join the company and would have preferred to continue in education a little longer, but his parents(15) [OR]his father (17) forced him to (15,17) leave school at 17. (13,15) in 1837. (13) [OR] he left because of family problems. (13) Engels became a (15,17) mercantile (17) apprentice in the family firm. (15,17) His commercial career (12,13) prevented him going to university. (12) Despite this he acquired knowledge about natural sciences, physics, botany, chemistry and biology. (13) He was a polyglot and was able to (13,17) write (17) and speak many languages, such as English, Russian, French, Italian, Portuguese, Irish (13,17) Gaelic (13), Spanish, Polish and Milanese dialect. (13,17)

Bremen

After a year in Barmen, (17) in 1838, (12,13) he was sent by his father to undertake an apprenticeship at a commercial house in Bremen. (17) He appeased his father (12,13) by accepting work as a nonsalaried office clerk (13) [OR] an apprentice (15) at a commercial house (13) involved in exporting (12,15) in Bremen. (13,15) While in Bremen, (13,15) [OR] Upon settling in Berlin, (12) Engels began reading many philosophical books. (13,15) He read the banned work of many authors like Ludwig Borne, Karl Gutzkow, Heinrich Heine and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. (12,13) Throughout his lifetime, Engels would point out that he was indebted to German philosophy because of its effect on his intellectual development. (16,17) Of all the authors, Hegel inspired Engels the most. (12,13) His teachings dominated German philosophy at that time. (17) One of his most notable works was The Philosophy of Right (1821), in which he describes the importance of the state in allowing individuals to exercise free will. (15) Hegel said that real change could only come through conflict. (15) Despite coming from the moneyed class that was benefitting from industrialisation, Engels had a revolutionary spirit. (15) Engels published countless articles and more than dozen books in his lifetime. (13) He started writing newspaper articles (12,13) on philosophy and economics. (12) He was moved by the plight of the working poor as a result of industrialisation. (13,15) his articles mainly spoke about the problems relating to unemployment and bad living conditions of factory workers. (13) He wrote under the pseudonym of Friedrich Oswald, (12,13) because his confrontational writings might have caused problems for his (13,15) Pietistic (13) family. (13,15) In September, 1838, he wrote a poem ‘The Bedouin’ which was his first published work in Bremisches Conversationsblatt No. 40. (13,17) [OR] He published his articles in Rheinische Zeitung whose editor was Karl Marx. (13,15) He wrote, “To get the most out of life you must be active, you must live and you must have the courage to taste the thrill of being young … (17) ” (1840). (17) Of Engels’ personality and appearance, Robert Heilbroner in The Worldly Philosophers described him as “tall and fair and rather elegant, he had the figure of a man who liked to fence and to ride to hounds and who had once swum the Weser River four times without a break.” as well as having been “gifted with a quick wit and facile mind” and of a gay temperament, As well as being able to “stutter in twenty languages”. (17) He had a great enjoyment of wine and other “bourgeois pleasures”. (17) His interests were poetry, fox-hunting and Sunday parties. (13,17) 

Engels1840
Figure 4 Engels in 1840

His personal motto was ‘take it easy’, and ‘jollity’ was considered to be his most favourite virtue. (13,17)

Military Service in Berlin

In 1841 (13,15) Engels (12,13) performed his military service (17) [OR] voluntarily (12,15) served (12,13) for a year, (12,15) in an artillery regiment (12,15) based in Berlin. (15) This was the Garde-Artillerie-Brigade of the Household Artillery (10) in the (12,13) Prussian (13,15) Army (12,13) He was applauded for his military prowess. (12) [OR] In a letter written to Joseph Weydemeyer on 19 June 1851 he says he was not worried about being selected for the Prussian military because of “my eye trouble, as I have now found out renders me completely unfit for active service of any sort.”

And Young Hegelians

During this time he attended lectures (13,15) in Berlin, (12,13) at the University (13,15) where he met a group of Young Hegelians. (13,17) In company with Bruno Bauer and Max Stirner, he joined the ‘Young Hegelians’ society (12,13) and accepted the Hegelian dialect (sic – it meant ‘dialectic’!). (12) He was opposed to organized religion and capitalism. (13) The society converted the agnostic Engels into a militant atheist, (12,13) something that was very shocking to his devoutly Protestant family. (15,17) It was a conversion made easy by his radical inclinations against the foundations of Christianity (9,12) and repressive social notions. (12) Tristram Hunt said: “the latent rationality of Christianity comes to permeate the everyday experience of the modern world—its values are now variously incarnated in the family, civil society, and the state”. (17) Engels embraced an idea of modern pantheism (or, rather, pandeism, a merging of divinity with progressing humanity, a happy dialectical synthesis that freed him from the fixed oppositions of the pietist ethos of devout longing and estrangement. (17) “Through Strauss I have now entered on the straight road to Hegelianism… (17) The Hegelian idea of God has already become mine, and thus I am joining the ranks of the ‘modern pantheists,'” Engels wrote in one of his final letters to the soon-to-be-discarded Graebers [Wilhelm and Friedrich, priest trainees and former classmates of Engels]. (17) Movements started to grow to give more power to ordinary people and give them the chance to improve their lot in life. (15) He became a communist in Berlin in 1842 (15) [OR] in 1843, after meeting Moses Hess (12), the Jewish French Philosopher and socialist (13) [OR] in 1844, in Manchester, (6,7) Engels helped develop the foundations of the labour theory of value and exploitation of labour (9) Dismayed by the conditions that workers in his family’s business were living in. (15) He anonymously published articles in the Rheinische Zeitung, exposing the poor employment- and living-conditions endured by factory workers. (17) The editor of the Rheinische Zeitung was Karl Marx. (17)

Engels goes to England

Moses Hess convinced him to believe that communism is the only logical solution to progress, (12) He advised him to go to England. (12) He believed that a communist revolution was inevitable somewhere in Europe, due to the oppressed conditions of its workers and their vast numbers; (15) class differences were becoming more and more prominent in England (12,13) giving it great potential for a communist revolution. (15) Surely if they chose to, the working class could rise up and overthrow the privileged few that currently lived off their labour? (15) In 1842 (13,17) as a young man (7,8) aged 22, (9,16) Engels cajoled his father into (12) allowing him to take the opportunity to (15) take Hess’ advice (13) and move [OR] Engels’ parents sent him to go and (7,8) work in England (7,8) because his father (17) [OR] his parents (13) thought that working at the Manchester firm might make his son reconsider some of his radical opinions. (13,17) [OR] he could learn the business and to keep an eye on the other partners. (20) [OR] He went because he thought that England would be a likely location for a communist revolution.(15) He went to work at (9,12) a manufacturing centre (9,17) [OR] a mill (13,17) called Victoria Mill [OR] in the offices of (17) the textile firm of Ermen and Engels, (16,17) [OR] his father’s factory (7,8) [OR] one in which his father was a shareholder (16) in Weaste, (17) Salford, (15,17) Manchester, England (7,8) where industrialisation was on the rise. (17) It was a business which made sewing threads, (13,17) Engels’ father happily agreed to the plan, (12) because he hoped that he would become well-versed in the family business. (9) Friedrich expected to be able to research his ideas at night. (15)

Meets Marx

Prior to meeting Marx, Engels had become established as a fully developed materialist and scientific socialist, independent of Marx’s philosophical development. (17) On his way to Manchester, in late November 1842, Engels visited the office of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne and met Karl Marx for the first time. (17) They were not impressed with each other. (17) Marx mistakenly thought that Engels was still associated with the Berliner Young Hegelians, with whom Marx had just broken off ties. (17) [OR] Engels did not meet Marx until years later, (9) in 1844. (13,16)

Engels in Manchester

Engels arrived in England late in (15,17) 1842. (4,6) He worked in Salford, (15) Manchester (7,8) from then (8,15) until 1844 (15) [OR] 1845). (8)

Salford
Figure 5: Salford, showing Approximate location of Ermen and Engels Factory

Mary Burns

Engels favoured forming romantic relationships with members of the proletariat. (17) He met and fell in love with an Irish (13,15) working (13) girl called Mary Burns, (13,15) who worked at his factory. (15) Engels and Mary never got married (13,15) but lived as husband and wife. (13) They (15,16) [OR] he (16,17) did not believe in the (15,17) current state and church-regulated (17) institution of marriage (15,17) because they thought it was unnatural and unjust, (16) and a form of class oppression. (17) Engels believed that the concept of monogamous marriage had been created from the domination of men over women, and tied this argument to communist thought by arguing that men had dominated women just as the capitalist class had dominated workers. (16)

Engels and the Manchester Poor

Mary Burns was a radical thinker (15) and became his guide around (15,17) the worst districts (17) of Salford and Manchester. (15,17) He was appalled by (8,13) the living conditions he saw on his tours with her. (15) The poverty of the urban workers, (6,7) was the shameful and horrible side of British Imperialism. (13) The growing industrialisation of Europe’s cities had led to a new way of living for the working poor in the 19th century. (15) As more and more people flooded in from the countryside to find employment in the factories and mills, city streets became full of hastily built, overcrowded dwellings. (15) The people in the crowded, filthy slums had reached the depths of human misery. (15) Disease spread rapidly through these packed living quarters, and large families often lived in one room, with no easily accessible clean water and a constant hunger which meagre wages could not supply enough food to satisfy. (15) Archival resources contemporary to Engels’s stay in Manchester shed light on some of the conditions he describes, including a manuscript (MMM/10/1) held by special collections at the University of Manchester. (17) This recounts cases seen in the Manchester Royal Infirmary, where industrial accidents dominated and which resonate with Engels’s comments on the disfigured persons seen walking round Manchester as a result of such accidents. (17) Meanwhile, the owners of the factories and mills where these people laboured grew rich, while the middle classes lived in pleasant, healthy suburbs and could travel into the city centre to shop, without having to notice the grim hovels just a stone’s throw away. (15) gathering plenty of material for a series of articles on the subject of the working class in England. (15) Engels regarded their condition as the natural outcome of the class war that was being waged on the working class by the middle classes. (15) He grew more engrossed with socialism. (9) [OR] he was already predisposed to criticise the conditions because he had taken up communism before leaving Germany. (12) [OR] Mary was responsible for changing his mindset towards the working class. (13)

Literary Output

He made remarkable progress at work, using his free time to read and (12) compose articles on economic and political scenarios. (12,13) He gathered plenty of material for a series of articles on the subject of the working class in England, (15) focusing particularly on child labour, (12,17) the despoiled environment, (17) and the lives and conditions of (12) of the overworked and impoverished labourers. (17) While in Manchester between October and November (17) 1843, Engels wrote his first economic work, entitled “Outline of a Critique of Political Economy.” (13,17) Engels sent the article to Paris, (17) where it was published in 1844 by Karl Marx. (13,17) His articles began to get acclaim after (12) being published in magazines such as ‘The Northern Star’, (12,16) Robert Owen’s (16,17) ‘New Moral World’ (12,16) and the newspaper (16) [OR] magazine (12) ‘Democratic Review’. (12,16) He described the Manchester workers’ plight in his 1845 work ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England’. (6,7) At that time, Manchester was a hotbed of radical activity, (15) and Engels enthusiastically integrated into the scene. (15,16) He attended meetings of local socialists and (15) became an supporter of (6,12) English labour (12,16) and the Chartist movement, (6,12) which was campaigning for Parliament to enforce better conditions for workers. (15)

Engels, Marx and Marxism

French influences were strong in the thought of the early German Socialists. (10) Ferdinand LaSalle (1825- 64) a Silesian Jew, who was eventually killed in a romantic duel after founding the first German Socialist party, spent a formative time in Paris. (10) Marx had been living in Paris since late October 1843, after the Rheinische Zeitung was banned in March 1843 by Prussian governmental authorities. (17) In Paris, Marx published (17) the ‘Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher’, (13,16)

Engels meets Marx, 1842 or 44

On his way to England (13,15) in November 1842, (15) [OR] to Germany, (12) in 1844, (4,8) Engels visited the office of the Rheinische Zeitung and met Karl Marx for the first time, though the pair did not impress each other. (16) [OR] In 1844, (17) after a productive stay in England, (16) Engels decided to return (16,17) home to Barmen. (15) He intended to turn his articles into his first book, The Condition of the Working Class in England, published in Germany in 1845. (15) On the way back to Germany, Engels stopped off (15,16) in Paris, (10,12) [OR] Brussels (4,8) [OR] Manchester (13) to meet (16) [OR] where he met Karl Marx (10,12) with whom he had corresponded earlier (16,17) for the first time, (13,15) at the Café de la Régence on the Place du Palais, (16,17) August 28th, 1844 (13,16) [OR] in the office of Rheinische Zeitung (13,15) [OR contradicting itself!] ‘Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher’, (13,16) a German (13) [OR] French (16) newspaper which he used to run (13) [OR] edit (15) with Arnold Ruge. (16) Engels’s earliest contribution to Marx’s work was writing for the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher, edited by both Marx and Arnold Ruge, in Paris in 1844. (17)

They bond

Marx shared a lot of Engels’ views on the class system. (15) He wanted to transform the world and men’s consciousness of it. (14) ‘Philosophy must become reality’. (14) He had admired Engels’ articles about Manchester and was interested in his idea that the working classes would lead a revolution to overthrow capitalism. (15) The two men became lifelong colleagues. (8,10) based on their mutual views on socialism. (15), Marx and Engels were the most important early figures of the communist movement. (15)

The League of the Just

During their stay in Paris, Engels and Marx also joined a secret revolutionary society

HolyFamily
Figure 6 The Holy Family

called the ‘League of the Just’. (13,17) It had been formed in France in 1837 to support (13,17) the (13) [OR] an (17) egalitarian society (13,17) via the overthrow of the existing governments. (17) In 1839, it had participated in a rebellion instigated by the French utopian revolutionary, Louis Auguste Blanqui. (13,17)

The Holy Family, 1845

Engels stayed in Paris to help Marx. (17) In November 1844, (16,17) Marx co-wrote an article with Engels called “The Holy Family,” (8,9) which was published in (13,17) late (17) February 1845. (13,17) It is a critique of the Young Hegelians, (9,12) the Bauer brothers (13,16) and their thought, which was very popular in academic circles at the time. (9,16) The title was suggested by the publisher and was intended as a sarcastic reference to the Bauer Brothers and their supporters. (16,17) The book created a controversy in the press. (16,17) Bruno Bauer attempted a refutation in an article which was published in Wigand’s Vierteljahrsschrift in 1845, claiming that Marx and Engels misunderstood what he was trying to say. (16,17) Marx later replied with his own article in the journal, Gesellschaftsspiegel, in January 1846. (16,17)

Condition of the Working Class in England 1845

Having left Paris on 6th September 1844 (17) Engels went back to Barmen (16,17) to write. (17) Between September 1844 and March 1845, he sent three articles to Marx, which were published in the Rheinische Zeitung and then in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher. (17) These chronicled the conditions among the working class in Manchester. (17) He later collected these articles for his influential first book, (17) ‘The Condition of the Working Classes in England’. (3,5) It was a classic in a field that later became Marx’s specialty. (16It was published in German (13,16) as ‘Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England’ (16) late May (17) 1845 (5,7) [OR] (1844) (1,13) [OR] 1844 and 1845. (6) In it, Engels described the “grim future of capitalism and the industrial age”, noting the details of the squalor in which the working people lived. (17) Based on personal observations (5,17) and research (5) in Manchester, (5,9) it was a detailed exposition of the working condition in Britain, (9,15) and Ireland (16) reflecting Engels’ thoughts on socialism and its development. (13,17) The work initially had little impact in England. (17) It was originally intended for a German audience (16) and was a huge hit among German readers and was considered to be a classic of its time. (13) It is still influential (13,15) with historians of British Industrialization. (13,17)

The German Ideology, 1845

In late April 1845, even before the publication of ‘the Condition of the Working Classes’, Engels moved to Brussels, (17) to collaborate with Marx on another book, (16,17) ‘German Ideology’. (17) ‘Die deutsche Ideologie’. (16) This was their first major joint work, a highly polemical critique that denounced and ridiculed certain of their earlier Young Hegelian associates and then proceeded to attack various German socialists who rejected the need for revolution. (16) Marx’s and Engels’ own constructive ideas were inserted here and there, always in a fragmentary manner and only as corrective responses to the views they were condemning. (16)

Origins of Marxism

SlumHousing
Figure 7 Interior of slum housing

Engels became a communist in Berlin in 1842 (15) [OR] in 1843, after meeting Moses Hess (12), the Jewish French Philosopher and socialist (13) He had become established as a fully developed materialist and scientific socialist, before meeting Marx, and independently of Marx’s philosophical development, but he endorsed Marx’s newly formulated materialistic interpretation of history (16) [OR] created a philosophical framework in which Marx’s ideas could be understood, by proposing that philosophy had been developing progressively through history until it culminated in Hegel’s systematic idealism. (16) The foundation of society is economic activity: upon this rises a legal and political superstructure, and forms of social consciousness. (14) The political relations that men establish among themselves are dependent on material production. (14)

Dialectical Materialism

He said that Marx had developed a dialectical method which was equally applicable in explaining nature, the progress of history, and the progress of human thought. (16) Marx’s “materialist conception” had enabled him to analyze capitalism and unlock the “secret” of surplus value. (16) All recorded history hitherto had been a history of class struggle, of the succession of the rule and victory of certain social classes over others.” (17)

Historical evidence for Class struggle before Manchester

Marx said

The history of all hitherto existing human society is the history of class struggles. The history of the development of society is, above all, the history of the development of production, the history of the modes of production which succeed one another through the centuries.” (14)

Since the process of development takes place by leaps, one passes suddenly from a succession of slow quantitative changes to a radical qualitative change1. (14) Two basic classes oppose each other in the capitalist system: the owners of the means of production, or bourgeoisie, and the workers, or proletariat. (14) “The bourgeoisie produces its own grave-diggers. The fall of the bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable”. (14) They based many of their arguments on study of the French (10) Revolution. (10) [OR] Industrial (9) Revolution. (9,10) [OR] on Britain’s capitalist system (9,14) of private enterprise and competition, based since the 16th century on the development of sea routes, international trade, and colonialism. (14) The resulting ‘Industrial Revolution’ had caused an (13,15) “enormous accumulation of commodities” by such means as the division of labour, the use of factories, the adoption of mechanization and other technical progress, (14) but it was unevenly distributed. (9,13) Marx identified unequal exchanges that take place in the market: a capitalist buys cotton yarn and sells the textile at a profit, which he reinvests in more production. (14) This is possible because the capitalist possesses the means of production, including the labour power of the worker. (14) It was an exploitative system that (9) benefited the owners of land, capital, and means of production more than the workforce. (9,14)

Surplus Value

Part of the value of the goods produced by economic man (the ‘worker’) is taken away and transformed into profit or ‘surplus value’, for the capitalist boss. (14) Specifically, Engels and Marx claimed that the surplus value created by workers in excess of wages produced significant profits for owners of capital—a central theme in Engel’s contributions to modern communism. (9) After the worker has earned the equivalent value of his wages, he goes on working, producing the ‘surplus value’ which is the boss’s profit. (9,14) This is accompanied by increasing contradictions: the introduction of machinery makes the boss more profit because he can produce more goods at a lower cost, but the new techniques are soon taken up by his competitors. (14) The cost of machinery grows faster than the cost of wages. (14) Since only labour can produce the surplus value from which profit is derived, this means that the capitalist’s rate of profit on his total outlay tends to decline. (14) He is encouraged to sack workers, leaving machines do the work which men used to do. (14)

Das Kapital 1867

Marx propounded ‘historical materialism’ in the Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital and other writings. (14) Volume I of Das Kapital appeared in 1867. (10,11) It borrowed a number of disparate ideas current at the time, and reassembled them in the original combination of “dialectical materialism”. (10) Marx hoped to create the same sort of universal theory for human society that Darwin had done for Natural History; and he had hoped to dedicate his first volume to Darwin. (10) It was a sustained exercise in speculative social philosophy, a rambling jumble of brilliant insights and turgid pedantry. (10) He took the subject of materialist history from Feuerbach, the class struggle from Sant Simone, the dictatorship of the proletariat from LeBoeuf, the Labour theory of value from Adam Smith, the theory of surplus value from Brian Thompson and the principle of dialectical progress from Hegel. (10) Besides relying on Engels for material support for his work and his publications Marx also benefited from his knowledge of business practices and industrial operations. (16) Engel’s reviews of Marx’s Das Kapital (Capital), helped to establish it as the centrepiece of Marxist thought and to popularize Marxist views. (16) One of Hegel’s most notable works was The Philosophy of Right (1821), in which he describes the importance of the state in allowing individuals to exercise free will. (15) He was opposed to organized religion and capitalism. (13) The bourgeoisie used religion as “an opium for the people” to make workers accept their position. (14) The Young Hegelians converted the agnostic Engels into a militant atheist. (12,13) It was a conversion made easy by his radical inclinations against the foundations of Christianity (9,12) and repressive social notions. (12) its values are now variously incarnated in the family, civil society, and the state. (17) Engels embraced an idea of modern pantheism (or, rather, pandeism, a merging of divinity with progressing humanity, a happy dialectical synthesis that freed him from the fixed oppositions of the pietist ethos of devout longing and estrangement. (17) The Hegelian idea of God has already become mine, and thus I am joining the ranks of the ‘modern pantheists,'” Engels wrote.

Evils of Capitalism

A ‘reserve army’ of unemployed factory workers and peasants is created. (14) “Capitalist production exhausts at the same time the two sources from which all wealth springs: the earth and the worker.” (14) Engels was moved by the plight of the working poor because of unemployment and bad living conditions of factory workers. (9,13) Engels regarded their condition as the natural outcome of the class war that was being waged on the working class by the middle classes. (15) As more and more people flooded in from the countryside to find employment in the factories and mills, city streets became full of hastily built, overcrowded dwellings. (15) The people in the crowded, filthy slums had reached the depths of human misery. (15) Disease spread rapidly through these packed living quarters, and large families often lived in one room, with no easily accessible clean water and a constant hunger which meagre wages could not supply enough food to satisfy. (15) In a capitalist society man is not truly free, because the bourgeois state took away from the worker all political power. (14) He was ‘alienated’ politically as well as economically. (14) In 1848 Engels published tracts denouncing the exploitation of workers and farmers throughout Europe in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. (7)

Capitalism and Religion

All these components were put together in a messianic doctrine whose psychological roots are thought to lie in the Judaism which had family had deserted during his childhood. (10)

Capitalism and Marriage

He did not believe in the (15,17) current state and church-regulated (17) institution of marriage (15,17) because he thought it was unnatural and unjust, (16) and a form of class oppression. (17) Engels argued that the family is an unnatural institution. (16) Family structures had changed over history. (13,17) Engels believed that the concept of monogamous marriage had been created from the domination of men over women, and tied this argument to communist thought by arguing that men had dominated women just as the capitalist class had dominated workers. (16) The family was designed to “privatize” wealth and human relationships against the way in which animals and early humans naturally evolved. (16) Monogamous marriage came from the necessity within class society for men to control women to ensure their own children would inherit their property. (17) It involved female subjugation and ownership of private property. (16)

He said that Marx had developed a dialectical method which was equally applicable in explaining nature, the progress of history, and the progress of human thought, and that his “materialist conception” had enabled him to analyze capitalism and unlock the “secret” of surplus value. (16) Engels wrote up the last two volumes of capital from Marx’s notes, (10,12) making Das Kapital a joint oeuvre whose individual elements cannot always be disentangled. (10) They established the materialist interpretation of history. (6) Engels wrote introductions to new editions of Marx’s works, as well as articles on a variety of subjects, contributing on questions of nationality, military affairs, the sciences, and industrial operations, and is generally credited with shaping two of the major philosophical components of Marxism: Historical materialism and dialectical materialism. (16) He organized Marx’s notes on the “Theories of Surplus Value,” which (5,17) he later published as the fourth (5,9) [OR] third (15) volume of “Das Kapital”. (5,9) [OR] The final volume was completed by Karl Kautsky. (16) But Engels had ideas of his own. (9,10) He was more experienced and knowledgeable (13) than Marx because of his familiarity with social conditions. (12) In the course of replying to Dühring, Engels reviewed recent advances in science and mathematics, seeking to demonstrate the way in which the concepts of dialectics applied to natural phenomena. (17) Many of these ideas were later developed in the unfinished work, Dialectics of Nature. (17) One of the best selling socialist books of the era, Engels criticises the utopian socialists, such as Charles Fourier and Robert Owen, and provides an explanation of the socialist framework for understanding capitalism, and an outline of the progression of social and economic development from the perspective of historical materialism. (17)

Observed in Manchester

in 1844, in Manchester, (6,7) Engels helped develop the foundations of the labour theory of value and exploitation of labour (9) He was appalled by (8,13) the living conditions he saw on his tours with her. (15) The poverty of the urban workers, (6,7) was the shameful and horrible side of British Imperialism. (13) Dismayed by the conditions that workers in his family’s business were living in. (15) He anonymously published articles in the Rheinische Zeitung, exposing the poor employment- and living-conditions endured by factory workers. (17) The editor of the Rheinische Zeitung was Karl Marx. (17) class differences were becoming more and more prominent in England (12,13) giving it great potential for a communist revolution. (15) Archival resources contemporary to Engels’s stay in Manchester shed light on some of the conditions he describes, including a manuscript (MMM/10/1) held by special collections at the University of Manchester. (17) This recounts cases seen in the Manchester Royal Infirmary, where industrial accidents dominated and which resonate with Engels’s comments on the disfigured persons seen walking round Manchester as a result of such accidents. (17) Meanwhile, the owners of the factories and mills where these people laboured grew rich, while the middle classes lived in pleasant, healthy suburbs and could travel into the city centre to shop, without having to notice the grim hovels just a stone’s throw away. (15) gathering plenty of material for a series of articles on the subject of the working class in England. (15) He grew more engrossed with socialism. (9) [OR] he was already predisposed to criticise the conditions because he had taken up communism before leaving Germany. (12) [OR] Mary was responsible for changing his mindset towards the working class. (13)

The state of things described in this book belongs to-day, in many respects, to the past, as far as England is concerned. Though not expressly stated in our recognized treatises, it is still a law of modern Political Economy that the larger the scale on which capitalistic production is carried on, the less can it support the petty devices of swindling and pilfering which characterize its early stages… But while England has thus outgrown the juvenile state of capitalist exploitation described by me, other countries have only just attained it. France, Germany, and especially America, are the formidable competitors who, at this moment—as foreseen by me in 1844—are more and more breaking up England’s industrial monopoly. Their manufactures are young as compared with those of England, but increasing at a far more rapid rate than the latter; and, curious enough, they have at this moment arrived at about the same phase of development as English manufacture in 1844. With regard to America, the parallel is indeed most striking. True, the external surroundings in which the working-class is placed in America are very different, but the same economical laws are at work, and the results, if not identical in every respect, must still be of the same order. Hence we find in America the same struggles for a shorter working-day, for a legal limitation of the working-time, especially of women and children in factories; we find the truck-system in full blossom, and the cottage-system, in rural districts, made use of by the ‘bosses’ as a means of domination over the workers… It will be hardly necessary to point out that the general theoretical standpoint of this book—philosophical, economical, political—does not exactly coincide with my standpoint of to-day. Modern international Socialism, since fully developed as a science, chiefly and almost exclusively through the efforts of Marx, did not as yet exist in 1844. My book represents one of the phases of its embryonic development; and as the human embryo, in its early stages, still reproduces the gill-arches of our fish-ancestors, so this book exhibits everywhere the traces of the descent of Modern Socialism from one of its ancestors, German philosophy. (16)

The Revolution

For Engels Marx was the Prophet; the proletariat was the chosen people; the socialist movement was the church; the revolution was the 2nd coming; (10) Marx shared a lot of Engels’ views on the class system. (15) He wanted to transform the world and men’s consciousness of it. (14) ‘Philosophy must become reality’. (14) He had admired Engels’ articles about Manchester and was interested in his idea, taken from Hegel, that real change could only come through conflict. (15) When the working classes men became aware of their loss and alienation, they would seek a radical transformation of their situation (9) by a revolution. (14,15) They would rise up to overthrow the bourgeoisie, a term for the middle classes who owned the places where the lower class worked, and were the privileged few that currently lived off their labour. (15) Such a revolution was the only way of resolving the contradictions in capitalism and replacing it by communism (14) an alternative economic system (14) with no private property. (15) Ernest Belfort Bax, called Engels “a devout Atheist” (8) In ‘The Holy Family; M and E ridiculed certain of their earlier Young Hegelian associates and then proceeded to attack various German socialists who rejected the need for revolution. (16) The Neue Rheinische Zeitung spread their revolutionary notions, (10,12) arguing that a democracy would be the first step towards communism. (12) The Communist Manifesto outlines a course of action for the Revolution to bring about the overthrow of the bourgeoisie (middle class) by the proletariat (working class) and establish a classless society, and presents an agenda of ten objectives to be accomplished. (16) Though primarily written by Marx, it included many of Engel’s preliminary definitions from Grundsätze des Kommunismus (1847; Principles of Communism). (16) It was well timed. (10) “A spectre is haunting Europe”, it claimed, “the spectre of communism. (10) Let the ruling classes tremble … (10,17) the proletarians (10) [OR] proletariat (17) have nothing to lose with (10) [OR] but (17) their chains … (10) They have a world to win … (17) working men of all countries, Unite!” (10,17) Later on, this pamphlet became (13) “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” (11,13) Marx believed that modern natural and political science were reaching a point where they could realize an ideal physical existence and an ideal society. (16)

What would follow

Marx and Engels said that the eventual realization of a communist society was the final aim and necessary result of the development of the productive forces in modern society. (15,16) He expounded the “withering of state power” in (10) his ‘Anti-Dühring’, (1878) (10,15) They believed that there should be no class system and no private property (15) [OR] wanted government control over our lives. (11) The abolition of the class system, achieved by the working classes rising up to overthrow the bourgeoisie (the middle classes who owned the places where the lower class worked), and the ending of all private property. (15) This latter aim was extremely controversial, but Engels and Marx justified it by saying (15) that the working class had next to no property as it was, and so had little to lose. (10,15) He claimed that Marx had applied Hegel’s insights to the physical world, and believed that modern natural and political science were reaching a point where they could realize an ideal physical existence and an ideal society. (16) Communism was the promised land. (10) These concepts which would provide the direction and insight to transform society and solve the problems of poverty and exploitation. (16) The class system would be abolished. (14,15) “In the place of the old bourgeois society with its classes and its class antagonisms, there will be an association in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.” (14) This was the paradise which Marxists expected. (14) Engels added details to Marx’s outline: a socialist society will be one in which the notion of value has no longer anything to do with the selling of goods, because all labour “becomes at once and directly social labour,” and the amount of social labour that every product contains no longer needs to be ascertained by “a detour” (i.e. (14) through the operation of business). (14) Engels first outlined the ideas behind the 5-Year Plans and Collectivisation. (14) From Fourier, he derives four main points that characterize the social conditions of a communist state. (17) The first point maintains that every individual would be able to fully develop their talents by eliminating the specialization of production. (17) Without specialization, every individual would be permitted to exercise any vocation of their choosing for as long or as little as they would like. (17) If talents permitted it, one could be a baker for a year and an engineer the next. (17) The second point builds upon the first: with the ability of workers to cycle through different jobs of their choosing, the fundamental basis of the social division of labour is destroyed, and the social division of labour will disappear as a result. (17) If anyone can employ himself at any job that he wishes, then there are clearly no longer any divisions or barriers to entry for labour. (17) Otherwise, such fluidity between entirely different jobs would not exist. (17) The third point continues from the second: once the social division of labour is gone, the division of social classes based on property ownership will fade with it. (17) If labour division puts a man in charge of a farm, that farmer owns the productive resources of that farm. (17) The same applies to the ownership of a factory or a bank. (17) Without labour division, no single social class may claim exclusive rights to a particular means of production since the absence of labour division allows all to use it. (17) Finally, the fourth point concludes that the elimination of social classes destroys the sole purpose of the state and it will cease to exist. (17) As Engels stated in his own writing, the only purpose of the state is to abate the effects of class antagonisms. (17) With the elimination of social classes based on property, the state becomes obsolete and a communist society, at least in the eyes of Engels, is achieved. (17) A future communist society would allow people to make decisions about their relationships free of economic constraints. (17)

Do as I say, not what I do

Despite coming from the moneyed class that was benefitting from industrialisation, Engels had a revolutionary spirit. (15) Engels began to exhibit radical philosophies from a very young age (12) His interests were poetry, fox-hunting and Sunday parties. (13,17) His personal motto was ‘take it easy’, and ‘jollity’ was considered to be his most favourite virtue. (13,17) He had a great enjoyment of wine and other “bourgeois pleasures”. (17)

Posthumous

In 1896, the articles which Engels and Marx had written together (12) [OR] which Engels had written for Marx, and which appeared in the New York Tribune under Marx’s name (16) in the 1860s (12) [OR] in 1851 and 1852 (16) were published under Engels’ name as the ‘Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany in 1848’. (12,16) In The Development of Russian Capitalism (1897–99) he noted the growing role of commercial capital2, in the exploitation of the workers in the factories and the peasants in the countryside. (14) He felt it possible to apply to Russia the ideas developed by Marx for Western Europe. (14) Although a disciple of Marx, Lenin did not believe that he had only to repeat Marx’s conclusions. (14) He said ‘We think that, for the Russian socialists, an independent elaboration of Marx’s theory is particularly necessary’. (14) In particular he wanted to include the peasants in the Marxist scheme of things. (14) Even though the industrial proletariat would be the vanguard of the revolution, Lenin thought that the support of the peasantry could be gained by promising seizure of privately owned land, and as early as 1903, at the London congress, he secured a resolution to this effect. (14) He was opposed at the 1903 Social Democrat London Congress by the Mensheviks, who wanted a wide-open proletarian party, collaborationwith the liberals, and a democratic constitution for Russia. (14) In 1912, at the Prague Conference, the Bolsheviks constituted themselves as an independent party. (14) The German Communist Rosa Luxemburg concluded that capitalism would collapse when exploitation of the world outside it (the peasantry, colonies, etc.) had reached a limit. (14) The contradictions of capitalism were leading to a war that would give the proletariat its opportunity to assume power by revolutionary means. (14) When the war she had predicted arrived in 1914, Social Democratic deputies in the German Reichstag voted for the financing of the World War 1 whereas she and Karl Liebknecht opposed it. (14) During the War Lenin lived in Switzerland, studying the development of capitalism and debating with Marxists like Rosa Luxemburg. (14) He analyzed her ideas in Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916). (14) He stressed Marxism as practical: Marxists needed to plan political action that would come to grips with the surrounding world. (14) In 1915 and 1916 he organized conferences to fight against the war. (14) In ‘7 Theses on the War’ written in 1914 Lenin had argued that, if there had to be a war, the defeat of the Czar’s armies would be not a bad thing. (14) Alexander Helphand, an old friend of Trotsky, Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, was positively enthusiastic about the prospect of the Czar’s empire being broken up after defeat by the Germans. (14)

Modifications to Marxism after Marx

Russia

As early as April 1853, Engels and Marx anticipated an “aristocratic-bourgeois revolution” in Russia which would begin in “St. Petersburg with a resulting civil war in the interior.” (17) The model for this type of aristocratic-bourgeois revolution in Russia against the autocratic czarist government in favour of a constitutional government had been provided by the Decembrist Revolt of 1825. (17) Although an unsuccessful revolt against the czarist government in favour of a constitutional government, both Engels and Marx anticipated a bourgeois revolution in Russia would occur which would bring about a bourgeois stage in Russian development to precede a communist stage. (17) Georgi Plekhanov was the first Russian Marxist, (14) By 1881, both Marx and Engels began to contemplate a course of development in Russia that would lead directly to the communist stage without the intervening bourgeois stage. (17) This analysis was based on what Marx and Engels saw as the exceptional characteristics of the Russian village commune or obshchina. (17) Although doubt was cast on this theory by Georgi Plekhanov, Plekhanov’s reasoning was based on the first edition of Das Kapital (1867), which predated Marx’s interest in Russian peasant communes by two years. (17) Later editions of the text demonstrate Marx’s sympathy for the argument of Nikolay Chernyshevsky, that it should be possible to establish socialism in Russia without an intermediary bourgeois stage provided that the peasant commune were used as the basis for the transition. (17) In The Development of Russian Capitalism (1897–99) he noted the growing role of commercial capital3, in the exploitation of the workers in the factories and the peasants in the countryside. (14) He felt it possible to apply to Russia the ideas developed by Marx for Western Europe. (14) Engels’ work was influential in inspiring later communists like (13,15) Vladimir (13) Lenin in their own revolutionary activities. (13,15) Lenin adapted communism to Russian conditions. (14) In 1893 he settled in St. Petersburg and became actively involved with the revolutionary workers. (14) Lenin approved of Engels, and wrote:

“After his friend Karl Marx (who died in 1883), Engels was the finest scholar and teacher of the modern proletariat in the whole civilised world…. In their scientific works, Marx and Engels were the first to explain that socialism is not the invention of dreamers, but the final aim and necessary result of the development of the productive forces in modern society. All recorded history hitherto has been a history of class struggle, of the succession of the rule and victory of certain social classes over others.” (17)

Although a disciple of Marx, Lenin did not believe that he had only to repeat Marx’s conclusions. (14) He said ‘We think that, for the Russian socialists, an independent elaboration of Marx’s theory is particularly necessary’. (14) In particular he wanted to include the peasants in the Marxist scheme of things. (14) Even though the industrial proletariat would be the vanguard of the revolution, Lenin thought that the support of the peasantry could be gained by promising seizure of privately owned land, and as early as 1903, at the London congress, he secured a resolution to this effect. (14) He was opposed at the 1903 Social Democrat London Congress by the Mensheviks, who wanted a wide-open proletarian party, collaboration with the liberals, and a democratic constitution for Russia. (14) In 1912, at the Prague Conference, the Bolsheviks constituted themselves as an independent party. (14)

World War I

The German Communist Rosa Luxemburg concluded that capitalism would collapse when exploitation of the world outside it (the peasantry, colonies, etc.) had reached a limit. (14) The contradictions of capitalism were leading to a war that would give the proletariat its opportunity to assume power by revolutionary means. (14) When the war she had predicted arrived in 1914, Social Democratic deputies in the German Reichstag voted for the financing of the World War 1 whereas she and Karl Liebknecht opposed it. (14) During the War Lenin lived in Switzerland, studying the development of capitalism and debating with Marxists like Rosa Luxemburg. (14) He analyzed her ideas in Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916). (14) He stressed Marxism as practical: Marxists needed to plan political action that would come to grips with the surrounding world. (14) In 1915 and 1916 he organized conferences to fight against the war. (14) In ‘7 Theses on the War’ written in 1914 Lenin had argued that, if there had to be a war, the defeat of the Czar’s armies would be not a bad thing. (14) Alexander Helphand, an old friend of Trotsky, Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, was positively enthusiastic about the prospect of the Czar’s empire being broken up after defeat by the Germans. (14) It was he who first said to the Germans that a Bolshevik Revolution would help them win the war. (14) This was the origin of the scheme by which Lenin was sent into Russia by the Germans. (14) His ‘April Theses’, promising Peace, Bread and Land, appealed to peasants and workers alike. (14) On the eve of the revolution of October 1917, in The State and Revolution he proposed “to subject the insurrection of the proletarian and non-proletarian masses to our influence, to our direction, to use it in our best interests.” (14)

Lenin in Power

In power he did this, introducing a dictatorship nominally of the Proletariat but actually of the Bolsheviks, and using it to take control of the economy in ‘War Communism’. (14) In his foreign policy he encouraged revolutionary activity to discomfit the imperialists, but his pragmatism showed after the failure in Poland, when he made alliances such as the Rapallo Pact with capitalist Germany. (14)

Stalin

Stalin codified the body of ideas that, under the name of Marxism-Leninism, constituted the official doctrine of the Soviet and eastern European communist parties. (14) Stalin was a man of action in a slightly different sense than was Lenin. (14) Gradually taking over power after Lenin’s death in 1924, he pursued the development of the Soviet Union with great vigour. (14) He practised Marxism, assimilating and simplifying it. (14) His work ‘Problems of Leninism’ set forth an ideology of power and activism that rode roughshod over the relatively delicate approach of Lenin. (14) He wrote the peasantry out of the script as firmly as Lenin had written them in. (14) In 1925 Marx and Engels’ ‘The German Ideology’, which they had written in 1845, was finally published. (16) Dialectics of Nature (German: “Dialektik der Natur”) is an unfinished 1883 work by Engels that applies Marxist ideas – particularly those of dialectical materialism – to science. (17) It was also published in 1925, in the USSR. (17) Whereas Marx expected successful revolution to come primarily from the intellectual development of the working class, Stalin favoured a dictatorial policy to increase industrialization and collectivize agriculture through ruthless repression and a strong centralization of power. (14) Nothing can be judged from the point of view of “eternal justice” or any other preconceived notion and no social system is immutable. (14) For Stalin what counted was the immediate goal, the practical result. (14) Only the end justified the means. (14) Leon Trotsky disagreed with Stalin. (14) The revolution could not be carried out in isolation, as Stalin maintained it could: the capitalist countries would try to destroy it. (14) It must be worldwide and permanent, directed against the liberal and nationalist bourgeoisie of all countries. (14)

Engels today

In Nazi Germany the works of Communist writers and philosophers ranked high on the list of the books to be burned, and Engels’ works were targeted immediately by the instigators of book burnings. (7) Tristram Hunt argues that Engels has become a convenient scapegoat, too easily blamed for the state crimes of the Soviet Union, Communist Southeast Asia and China. (17) “Engels is left holding the bag of 20th century ideological extremism,” Hunt writes, “while Marx is rebranded as the acceptable, post–political seer of global capitalism.” Hunt largely exonerates Engels stating that “in no intelligible sense can Engels or Marx bear culpability for the crimes of historical actors carried out generations later, even if the policies were offered up in their honour.” Other writers, while admitting the distance between Marx and Engels and Stalin, are less charitable, noting for example that the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin predicted the oppressive potential of their ideas. (17) “It is a fallacy that Marxism’s flaws were exposed only after it was tried out in power…. (17) [Marx and Engels] were centralisers. (17) While talking about ‘free associations of producers’, they advocated discipline and hierarchy.” (17) Paul Thomas, of the University of California, Berkeley, claims that while Engels had been the most important and dedicated facilitator and diffuser of Marx’s writings, he significantly altered Marx’s intents as he held, edited and released them in a finished form, and commentated on them. (17) Engels attempted to fill gaps in Marx’s system and extend it to other fields. (17) He stressed historical materialism in particular, assigning it a character of scientific discovery and a doctrine, indeed forming Marxism as such. (17) A case in point is Anti-Dühring, which supporters of socialism, like its detractors, treated as an encompassing presentation of Marx’s thought. (17) And while in his extensive correspondence with German socialists Engels modestly presented his own secondary place in the couple’s intellectual relationship and always emphasised Marx’s outstanding role, Russian communists like Lenin raised Engels up with Marx and conflated their thoughts as if they were necessarily congruous. (17) Soviet Marxists then developed this tendency to the state doctrine of dialectical materialism. (17) The liberal Left continue to push their radical agenda against American values. (11)

Marxist Racism

Marx had a racial vision that might be interesting to his modern-day black supporters. (11) Nathaniel Weyl, himself a former communist, dug these references up for his 1979 book, “Karl Marx: Racist.” (11) In a letter to Engels, Marx wrote about his socialist political competitor Ferdinand Lassalle:

It is now completely clear to me that he, as is proved by his cranial formation and his hair, descends from the Negroes who had joined Moses’ exodus from Egypt, assuming that his mother or grandmother on the paternal side had not interbred with a nigger. Now this union of Judaism and Germanism with a basic Negro substance must produce a peculiar product. (11)

Engels shared Marx’s racial philosophy. (11) In 1887, Paul Lafargue, who was Marx’s son-in-law, was a candidate for a council seat in a Paris district that contained a zoo. (11) Engels claimed that Lafargue had “one-eighth or one-twelfth nigger blood.” (11) In a letter to Lafargue’s wife, Engels wrote, “Being in his quality as a nigger, a degree nearer to the rest of the animal kingdom than the rest of us, he is undoubtedly the most appropriate representative of that district.” (11) Marx was also an anti-Semite, as seen in his essay titled “On the Jewish Question,” which was published in 1844. (11) Marx asked:

What is the worldly religion of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly God? Money. … Money is the jealous god of Israel, in face of which no other god may exist. Money degrades all the gods of man—and turns them into commodities. … The bill of exchange is the real god of the Jew. (11) His god is only an illusory bill of exchange. … The chimerical nationality of the Jew is the nationality of the merchant, of the man of money in general.’ (11)

He didn’t think much of Mexicans, either. (11) When the United States annexed California after the Mexican War, Marx sarcastically asked, “Is it a misfortune that magnificent California was seized from the lazy Mexicans who did not know what to do with it?”(11) Engels shared Marx’s contempt for Mexicans, explaining: “In America we have witnessed the conquest of Mexico and have rejoiced at it. It is to the interest of its own development that Mexico will be placed under the tutelage of the United States.” (11)

In Brussels, 1845-8

Marx and Ruge soon split because Ruge remained a Young Hegelian in his belief, and Ruge left the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher. (17) Nonetheless, following the split, Marx remained friendly enough with Ruge that he sent Ruge a warning on 15th January 1845 that the Paris police were going to execute orders against him, Marx and others at the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher requiring all to leave Paris within 24 hours. (17) On 3rd February 1845 (17) [OR] In April 1845, (15) Marx was expelled from France at Prussian insistence. (8,15) He settled in Brussels with his wife and one daughter. (17) The nation of Belgium, founded in 1830, was endowed with one of the most liberal constitutions in Europe and functioned as refuge for progressives from other countries. (17) Engels followed him to Brussels in Belgium (8,13) where they stayed from 1845 to 1848. (13,16) [OR] In the summer of 1845, Engels took Marx on a tour of England. (16) Afterward, he spent time in Paris, trying to convert various groups of German émigré workers, including a secret socialist society, the League of the Just, and French socialists, to his and Marx’s views. (16) Brussels was a more liberal city, and Engels and Marx were able to join up with many other socialist German expatriots (sic). (15) He endorsed Marx’s newly formulated materialistic interpretation of history, which assumed the eventual realization of a communist society. (16) While living in Barmen, Engels began making contact with Socialists in the Rhineland to raise money for Marx’s publication efforts in Brussels. (17) These contacts became more important as both Marx and Engels began political organizing for the Social Democratic Workers’ Party of Germany. (17) He and Marx (16,17) intended to organise (12) [OR] spent much of their time organizing the city’s (16,17) German workers (12,16) like the French and English workers were uniting. (12)

The Communist League

Shortly after their arrival, (16,17) in Brussels in 1845 (12,16) [OR] in London (8,16) in 1846 (8) [OR] Engels and Marx founded (8,15) [OR] contacted (16,17) and became members of the (12,13) underground (16,17) German (12,13) Communist League (8,12) which was a successor organisation to the old League of the Just which had been founded in 1837. (17) In June 1847 the League of the Just held its first congress in London (16) [OR] had recently disbanded (17) [OR] Engels was instrumental in bringing about its transformation into the Communist League. (16) Influenced by Wilhelm Weitling, the Communist League was an international society of proletarian revolutionaries with branches in various European cities which had contacts with the underground conspiratorial organisation of Louis Auguste Blanqui. (17) It contained many friends of Engels and Marx (13,15) such as Georg Friedrich Herwegh, who had worked with Marx on the Rheinsche Zeitung, Heinrich Heine, the famous poet, a young doctor by the name of Roland Daniels, Heinrich Bürgers and August Herman Ewerbeck all maintained their contacts with Marx and Engels in Brussels. (17) Georg Weerth, who had become a friend of Engels in England in 1843, now settled in Brussels. (17) Karl Wallau and Stephen Born (real name Simon Buttermilch) were both German immigrant typesetters who settled in Brussels to help Marx and Engels with their Communist League work. (17) They made new contacts such as Wilhelm Wolff, who was soon to become one of Marx’s and Engels’s closest collaborators. (17) Others were Joseph Weydemeyer and Ferdinand Freiligrath, a famous revolutionary poet. (17) While most of the associates of Marx and Engels were German immigrants living in Brussels, some of their new associates were Belgians. (17) Phillipe Gigot, a Belgian philosopher and Victor Tedesco, a lawyer from Liège, both joined the Communist League. (17) Joachim Lelewel a prominent Polish historian and participant in the Polish uprising of 1830–1831 was also a frequent associate. (17) Together, Engels and Marx persuaded its second Communist Congress in London to adopt their ideas, and (16) the members asked them to write a pamphlet to elaborate the principles of communism, (12,13) to act as a manifesto for the Communist League. (12) This became Manifesto of the Communist Party, better known as the Communist Manifesto. (17)

The Communist Manifesto

Together they produced (3,4) Der Manifest der kommunistischen Partei (16) ‘The Communist Manifesto’. (3,4) It was first published on 21st (13,16) February (13,15) 18484 (3,4), and is still widely read all over the world. (13) This slender volume is one of the most famous political documents in history. (16) Much of its power comes from the concise way in which it is written. (16) The Manifesto outlines a course of action to bring about the overthrow of the bourgeoisie (middle class) by the proletariat (working class) and establish a classless society, and presents an agenda of ten objectives to be accomplished. (16) Though primarily written by Marx, it included many of Engel’s preliminary definitions from Grundsätze des Kommunismus (1847; Principles of Communism). (16) It set out the principles and policies of communism: the abolition of the class system, achieved by the working classes rising up to overthrow the bourgeoisie (the middle classes who owned the places where the lower class worked), and the ending of all private property. (15) This latter aim was extremely controversial, but Engels and Marx justified it by saying (15) that the working class had next to no property as it was, and so had little to lose. (10,15) It was well timed. (10) “A spectre is haunting Europe”, it claimed, “the spectre of communism. (10) Let the ruling classes tremble … (10,17) the proletarians (10) [OR] proletariat (17) have nothing to lose with (10) [OR] but (17) their chains … (10) They have a world to win … (17) working men of all countries, Unite!” (10,17) Later on, this pamphlet became (13) “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” (11,13) Engels’ mother wrote in a letter to him of her concerns, commenting that he had “really gone too far” and “begged” him “to proceed no further”. (17) She continued: You have paid more heed to other people, to strangers, and have taken no account of your mother’s pleas. (17) God alone knows what I have felt and suffered of late. (17) I was trembling when I picked up the newspaper and saw therein that a warrant was out for my son’s arrest. (17)

The Year of Revolutions, 1848

In France

It was the ‘Year of Revolutions’, (15) A tide of revolution swept across Europe. (15,16) During the month of February (16) 1848, there was a revolution in France. (13,16) Revolution soon spread to other Western European countries. (17)

In Germany

Engels and Marx had to change their country of residence repeatedly to evade expulsion after publishing tracts denouncing the exploitation of workers and farmers throughout Europe in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. (7) In March, a month after the Communist Manifesto was published, Marx was expelled from Belgium. (8) [OR] to be at the heart of the revolution, (15) both Engels and Marx (13,16) returned to the city of Cologne (12,16) in Prussia (16) (Germany. (6,12)

Prague

 Figure 8 One of the revolutions of 1848 – Prague

The Neue Rheinische Zeitung

In Cologne (12,16) they produced (15,16) and edited (16,17) a new daily (15,16) revolutionary (15) newspaper (15,16) the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. (6,12) Besides Marx and Engels, other frequent contributors to the Neue Rheinische Zeitung included Karl Schapper, Wilhelm Wolff, Ernst Dronke, Peter Nothjung, Heinrich Bürgers, Ferdinand Wolf and Carl Cramer. (17) They used their writings to try and influence the revolution in the German states as the revolutionaries tried to institute a constitutional government. (15) The Neue Rheinische Zeitung spread their revolutionary notions, (10,12) arguing that a democracy would be the first step towards communism. (12) Engels’ own mother disapprovingly credited it with stoking the fires of revolution in Germany, (15,17) saying in a letter to Friedrich that “nobody, ourselves included, doubted that the meetings at which you and your friends spoke, and also the language of (Neue) Rh.Z. were largely the cause of these disturbances.” Engels’s parents hoped that young Friedrich would “decide to turn to activities other than those which you have been pursing [sic?] in recent years and which have caused so much distress.” (17) They felt the only hope for their son was to emigrate to America and start his life anew, threatening that if he did not change, he would “cease to receive money from us.” (17)

On the barricades

In 1848, Marx and Engels began openly participating in the revolutions that had spread from France. (6,12) Starting with an article called “The Magyar Struggle”, (13,17) written on 8th January (17) 1849, Engels, himself, began a series of reports on the Revolution and War for Independence of the newly founded Hungarian Republic. (13,17) Engels’s articles on the Hungarian Republic became a regular feature in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung under the heading: “From the Theatre of War.” (17) Engels actively took part in the revolution in Hungary, (13,15) There was a Prussian coup d’état in June 1849, (13,16) and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung was suppressed, (12,13) Marx’s Prussian citizenship was revoked. (12,16) Engels returned to work in Germany with his father (8) and did not leave Prussia for some time, (12) [OR] Marx and Engels were expelled from Prussia for their radical journalism. (10) [OR] The coup d’état separated Engels and Marx. (13,16) Engels stayed in Prussia and travelled to an even more dangerous involvement. (17) Taking two cases of rifle cartridges with him, (17) he went to join (16,17) [OR] organized (12) the revolutionary uprising in (12,16) Elberfeld2 (17) in the Baden (6,17) and Palatinate (17) area of the Kingdom of Bavaria (17) in South Germany. (12,16) The rising had begun on 10th May 1849. (17) Later when Prussian troops came to Kaiserslautern5 to suppress the uprising, (17) Engels joined a group of volunteers (17) He served as an an aide-de-camp in the volunteer corps of the (16,17) city of (16) [OR] August (17) Willich (16) Despite his ‘eye trouble, (which) … renders me completely unfit for active service of any sort.” (17) Engels and Marx fought on the barricades at Baden but the rising failed. (13) [OR] Marx was deported (13,16) to London (13) [OR] fled to Paris and then London (16,17) where he lived in poverty (10,15) in a cramped apartment at 28, Dean Street, Soho. (17) From 1856, he lived at 9 Grafton Terrace, Kentish Town, and then in a tenement at 41 Maitland Park Road in Belsize Park from 1875 until his death in March 1883. (17)

Return to England

After the failure of the German revolutions Engels was a wanted man. (15,17) On 6th June 1849 Prussian authorities issued an arrest warrant for him which contained a physical description as “height: 5 feet 6 inches; hair: blond; forehead: smooth; eyebrows: blond; eyes: blue; nose and mouth: well proportioned; beard: reddish; chin: oval; face: oval; complexion: healthy; figure: slender. (17) Special characteristics: speaks very rapidly and is short-sighted.” (17) He was one of the last members of Willich’s volunteers to (17) escape by crossing the Swiss border. (16,17) Marx and others became concerned for his life until they finally heard from him, but once he was safe in Switzerland, Engels began to write down all his memories of the recent military campaign against the Prussians. (17) This writing eventually became the article published under the name “The Campaign for the German Imperial Constitution.” (17) He travelled through Switzerland as a refugee, (16,17) and on 5th October 1849, arrived in Genoa. (17) There, Engels booked passage on the English schooner, Cornish Diamond under the command of a Captain Stevens. (17) The voyage across the western Mediterranean, around the Iberian Peninsula by sailing schooner took about five weeks. (17) Finally, on 10th November 1849 the Cornish Diamond sailed up the River Thames to London with Engels on board. (17) He could at last rejoin Marx in England (10,12) in 1848, (10) [OR] near the end of 1849 (15,17) [OR] in November 1850. (13) He lived (1,3) mostly (4) in England (1,3) from 1849. (3) Prime Minister John Russell refused to expel Marx or Engels on principles of freedom of thought. (8) He and Engels began reconstructing the Communist League. (12,16) They drafted tactical directives for the Communists, believing that another revolution was imminent. (16) With his parents threatening to cut him off from the family finances, (15,17) funds began to get scarce. (12,15) However, the problem in the relationship between Friedrich and his parents was worked out without Engels having to leave England or being cut off from financial assistance from his parents. (17) In July 1851, Friedrich Engels’s father arrived to visit him in Manchester, England. (17) During the visit his father arranged for Friedrich to meet Peter Ermen of the office of Ermen & Engels, to move to Liverpool, and (17) to return to work (12,15) in a subordinate position (16,17) as an office clerk, the same position he held in his teens while in Germany where his father’s company was based. (17) [OR] take over sole management of (10,17) the Ermen and Engels (16,17) office (17) [OR] factory (15,16) [OR] his father’s textile plant in Manchester, (12,14) in England. (15,16) To make ends meet (15) while supporting Marx and himself, (15,16) Engels agreed (12,15) [OR] was forced to agree. (15,16) This enabled him to evade the German authorities (15) and also to make money to fund his (15,17) and Marx’s (13,15) continued revolutionary activities (15) [OR] Marx’s work on Das Kapital. (12,17)

Salfordll

Figure 9 Salford as Engels knew it, in 1866

In Manchester, 1850-1870

Double Life

Engels (8,13) supported Marx (5,8) and his family in England (8,15) financially (5,8) for the rest of his life. (12) Unlike his first period in England around 1843 (17), Engels was now under police surveillance. (15,17) For many years he lived a double life, contributing to capitalist oppression during the day and working to bring about a communist revolution by night. (15) He (15,17) and Mary Burns had a network of houses, (15) “official” and “unofficial” (10) homes all around Manchester and Salford (15,17) Weaste and other inner-city Manchester districts. (17) In these he lived under false names (17) to be able to move between when necessary (15) and so confuse the police. (17) Little more is known, as Engels destroyed over 1,500 letters between himself and Marx after the latter’s death so as to conceal the details of his secretive lifestyle. (17) He kept up a constant correspondence with Marx and frequently wrote newspaper articles for him, (17) such as “The Campaign for the German Imperial Constitution” which he finished in February 1850, and “On the Slogan of the Abolition of the State and the German ‘Friends of Anarchy'” written in October 1850. (17)

And Louis Napoleon

In April 1851, he wrote the pamphlet “Conditions and Prospects of a War of the Holy Alliance against France”. (17) Marx and Engels denounced Louis Bonaparte when, on 2nd December 1851, he carried out a coup against the French government and made himself president for life. (17) In condemning this action, Engels wrote to Marx on 3rd December 1851, characterising the coup as “comical” and referred to it as occurring on “the 18th Brumaire” – the date of Napoleon I’s coup of 1799, according to the French Republican Calendar. (17) Marx was later to incorporate this comically ironic characterisation of Louis Bonaparte’s coup into his essay about the coup. (17) Indeed, Marx even called the essay ‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte’ again using Engels’s suggested characterisation. (17) Marx also borrowed Engels characterisation of Hegel’s notion of the World Spirit that history occurred twice, “once as a tragedy and secondly as a farce” in the first paragraph of his new essay. (17)

Post-Mary, 1863-70

Mary died (15,17) suddenly of a heart disease (17) in 1863, and Engels later began a relationship with her sister (15,17) Lydia (“Lizzie”). (17) [OR]Lizzy. (15) They lived openly as a couple in London and married on 11th September 1878, hours before Lizzie’s death. (17) He established himself as a prosperous capitalist, (10) and eventually (12,15) due to his impressive and productive work record. (12,16) worked his way up to become a joint proprietor (12,15) by 1864, (16,17) He never allowed his communist principles and his criticism of capitalism to interfere with the profitable operations of the firm, and was able to supply Marx with a constant stream of funds. (16) Along with working in the mill, Engels also wrote his notable work, ‘The Peasant War in Germany’ which was based on Protestant Reformation, 1525 revolutionary war of peasants and Martin Luther. (16) He was now able to spend all his time writing radical articles and working with Marx on books. (15)

In London with Marx 1870-83

Five years later, Engels retired from the business and could focus more on his studies. (17) In 1870 (15,16) he moved to London to (12,15) to live and (16) [OR] Marx did not live with him, but at 41 Maitland Park Road in Belsize Park work with Marx (12,15) at his home at 122 Regent’s Park Road, Primrose Hill, NW1, (16,17) where he lived until his death.(16) [OR] In October 1894 he moved to 41 Regent’s Park Road, Primrose Hill, NW1, where he died the following year. (17)

 EngelsMarxEngland

Figure 10 Engels and Marx in England

 

Das Kapital

Meanwhile Marx was doing his research for (5,10) his life’s work (10,13) “Das Kapital”, (5,9) one of the earliest and most scathing critiques of modern capitalism. (9) It has been called the “Bible of the working class”. (14) It took 30 years of lonely study (10) [OR] They worked together (12) in the reading room of the British Museum to write Das Kapital. (10) Volume I appeared in 1867. (10,11) It was intended by Marx to create the same sort of universal theory for human society that Darwin had done for Natural History; and he had hoped to dedicate his first volume to Darwin. (10) It was a sustained exercise in speculative social philosophy, a rambling jumble of brilliant insights and turgid pedantry. (10) It borrowed a number of disparate ideas current at the time, and reassembled them in the original combination of “dialectical materialism”. (10) He took the subject of materialist history from Feuerbach, the class struggle from Sant Simone, the dictatorship of the proletariat from LeBoeuf, the Labour theory of value from Adam Smith, the theory of surplus value from Brian Thompson and the principle of dialectical progress from Hegel. (10) Besides relying on Engels for material support for his work and his publications Marx also benefited from his knowledge of business practices and industrial operations. (16) All these components were put together in a messianic doctrine whose psychological roots are thought to lie in the Judaism which had family had deserted during his childhood. (10) Engel’s reviews of Marx’s Das Kapital (Capital), helped to establish it as the centrepiece of Marxist thought and to popularize Marxist views. (16) Engels created a philosophical framework in which Marx’s ideas could be understood, by proposing that philosophy had been developing progressively through history until it culminated in Hegel’s systematic idealism. (16) He claimed that Marx had applied Hegel’s insights to the physical world, and believed that modern natural and political science were reaching a point where they could realize an ideal physical existence and an ideal society. (16) He said that Marx had developed a dialectical method which was equally applicable in explaining nature, the progress of history, and the progress of human thought, and that his “materialist conception” had enabled him to analyze capitalism and unlock the “secret” of surplus value. (16)

The First International

Marx had little to do with practical politics: (10) he helped Engels found the International Workingmen’s Association (10,16) in 1864. (16) It was a phantom body later eulogised as “the first international”, for which he wrote a constitution and some fiery addresses. (10)

Last Years

Engels assisted Marx in editing a few articles as Marx regarded him as highly informed on economics, political and military issues. (12)

Marx, Engels and Russia

In his later years Marx attracted a substantial following among German Socialists and their Russian disciples, but not in Britain. (10) One of the ideas that Engels and Marx contemplated was the possibility and character of a potential revolution in the Russias. (17) As early as April 1853, Engels and Marx anticipated an “aristocratic-bourgeois revolution” in Russia which would begin in “St. Petersburg with a resulting civil war in the interior.” (17) The model for this type of aristocratic-bourgeois revolution in Russia against the autocratic czarist government in favour of a constitutional government had been provided by the Decembrist Revolt of 1825. (17) Although an unsuccessful revolt against the czarist government in favour of a constitutional government, both Engels and Marx anticipated a bourgeois revolution in Russia would occur which would bring about a bourgeois stage in Russian development to precede a communist stage. (17) Marx kept in communication with the Russian socialists and Das Kapital was translated into Russian in 1872. (14) At this time, Marx was living in London but they were able to exchange ideas through daily correspondence. (17) By 1881, both Marx and Engels began to contemplate a course of development in Russia that would lead directly to the communist stage without the intervening bourgeois stage. (17) This analysis was based on what Marx and Engels saw as the exceptional characteristics of the Russian village commune or obshchina. (17) Although doubt was cast on this theory by Georgi Plekhanov, Plekhanov’s reasoning was based on the first edition of Das Kapital (1867), which predated Marx’s interest in Russian peasant communes by two years. (17) Later editions of the text demonstrate Marx’s sympathy for the argument of Nikolay Chernyshevsky, that it should be possible to establish socialism in Russia without an intermediary bourgeois stage provided that the peasant commune were used as the basis for the transition. (17) When he died he was buried in Highgate Cemetery, in a tomb which faces that of Herbert Spencer, with the inscription “philosophers have so far explained the world in various ways: the point, however, is to change it.” (10) The influence of Marx’s ideas has been enormous. (14)

Engels’ Later Years

Mary Burns died in 1863 and Engels found solace in her younger sister Lizzy. (13,15) Engels never intended to marry Lizzy like Mary Burns. (13) When he married Lizzy on 11th September 1878, it was only because it was her dying wish. (13) After Marx’s death (5,6) in 1883, (6,8) Engels became the keeper of his legacy (15) and the foremost authority on Marx and Marxism. (16) He struggled to keep the spirit of communism alive, and gained the status of the first Marxist. (12) He devoted the remaining years of his life to editing (5,6) and translating (6,8) Marx’s writings. (5,6) He held regular correspondence with the German Social Democrats and other followers all over Europe (12,16) [OR] everywhere, in order to perpetuate the image of Marx and to foster some degree of conformity among the “faithful.” (16) He edited the second and third volumes of ‘Das Kapital’ (5,6) in 1885 (6,16) and 1894 (6,10) respectively. (6,16) Engels wrote up the last two volumes of capital from Marx’s notes, (10,12) making Das Kapital a joint oeuvre whose individual elements cannot always be disentangled. (10) They established the materialist interpretation of history. (6) Engels wrote introductions to new editions of Marx’s works, as well as articles on a variety of subjects, contributing on questions of nationality, military affairs, the sciences, and industrial operations, and is generally credited with shaping two of the major philosophical components of Marxism: Historical materialism and dialectical materialism. (16) He organized Marx’s notes on the “Theories of Surplus Value,” which (5,17) he later published as the fourth (5,9) [OR] third (15) volume of “Das Kapital”. (5,9) [OR] The final volume was completed by Karl Kautsky. (16) But Engels had ideas of his own. (9,10) He was more experienced and knowledgeable (13) than Marx because of his familiarity with social conditions. (12) He was more concerned than Marx with the practical implications of their theories. (10) Engles (13) [OR] Engels (9,10) gave great encouragement to active revolutionaries. (10)

Anti-Dühring 1878

He expounded the “withering of state power” in (10) his ‘Anti-Dühring’, (1878) (10,15) (Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft – ‘Eugen Dühring’s Revolution in Science,) which he wrote almost single-handedly. (16) This book did much to promote Marx’s ideas, and undermined the influence of the Berlin professor, Karl (16) Eugen Dühring, (16,17) a German philosopher and critic of Marxism (17) who was threatening to supplant Marx’s influence among German Social Democrats. (16) In the course of replying to Dühring, Engels reviewed recent advances in science and mathematics, seeking to demonstrate the way in which the concepts of dialectics applied to natural phenomena. (17) Many of these ideas were later developed in the unfinished work, Dialectics of Nature. (17) One of the best selling socialist books of the era, Engels criticises the utopian socialists, such as Charles Fourier and Robert Owen, and provides an explanation of the socialist framework for understanding capitalism, and an outline of the progression of social and economic development from the perspective of historical materialism. (17) From Fourier, he derives four main points that characterize the social conditions of a communist state. (17) The first point maintains that every individual would be able to fully develop their talents by eliminating the specialization of production. (17) Without specialization, every individual would be permitted to exercise any vocation of their choosing for as long or as little as they would like. (17) If talents permitted it, one could be a baker for a year and an engineer the next. (17) The second point builds upon the first: with the ability of workers to cycle through different jobs of their choosing, the fundamental basis of the social division of labour is destroyed, and the social division of labour will disappear as a result. (17) If anyone can employ himself at any job that he wishes, then there are clearly no longer any divisions or barriers to entry for labour. (17) Otherwise, such fluidity between entirely different jobs would not exist. (17) The third point continues from the second: once the social division of labour is gone, the division of social classes based on property ownership will fade with it. (17) If labour division puts a man in charge of a farm, that farmer owns the productive resources of that farm. (17) The same applies to the ownership of a factory or a bank. (17) Without labour division, no single social class may claim exclusive rights to a particular means of production since the absence of labour division allows all to use it. (17) Finally, the fourth point concludes that the elimination of social classes destroys the sole purpose of the state and it will cease to exist. (17) As Engels stated in his own writing, the only purpose of the state is to abate the effects of class antagonisms. (17) With the elimination of social classes based on property, the state becomes obsolete and a communist society, at least in the eyes of Engels, is achieved. (17)

The Origin of the Family 1884

After Marx’s death Engels wrote the highly acclaimed (12) Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats (16) ‘The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, (3,8) 1884 (3,10) a detailed seminal work (16) based on Marx’s ethnographic research (17) [OR] on anthropological evidence of the time. (17) Engels wrote it when he was 64 years of age (13) Engels argued that the family is an unnatural institution. (16) Family structures had changed over history. (13,17) The family was designed to “privatize” wealth and human relationships against the way in which animals and early humans naturally evolved. (16) Monogamous marriage came from the necessity within class society for men to control women to ensure their own children would inherit their property. (17) It involved female subjugation and ownership of private property. (16) A future communist society would allow people to make decisions about their relationships free of economic constraints. (17) This was an important contribution to family economics. (5)

Other works

That was his first piece after Marx’s death and last publication before his own passing. (9) [OR] He wrote ‘Ludwig Feuerbach und der Ausgang der klassischen deutschen Philosophie’ in 1888; (‘Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy). (12,16) [OR] In his “Can Europe Disarm,” (1893) he said “The socialist movement cannot be gagged. On the contrary, the antisocialist law…will complete the revolutionary education of the German workers.” (7) [OR] The Condition of the Working Classes in England’ was at last published in English in 1892. (13,16) [OR] 1887. (17) [OR Three chapters of the ‘Anti-Dühring’ were later edited and published under the separate title, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. (17) Almost fifty years later, in his preface to the 1892 edition, Engels said of himself:

The author, at that time, was young, twenty-four years of age, and his production bears the stamp of his youth with its good and its faulty features, of neither of which he feels ashamed… The state of things described in this book belongs to-day, in many respects, to the past, as far as England is concerned. Though not expressly stated in our recognized treatises, it is still a law of modern Political Economy that the larger the scale on which capitalistic production is carried on, the less can it support the petty devices of swindling and pilfering which characterize its early stages… But while England has thus outgrown the juvenile state of capitalist exploitation described by me, other countries have only just attained it. France, Germany, and especially America, are the formidable competitors who, at this moment—as foreseen by me in 1844—are more and more breaking up England’s industrial monopoly. Their manufactures are young as compared with those of England, but increasing at a far more rapid rate than the latter; and, curious enough, they have at this moment arrived at about the same phase of development as English manufacture in 1844. With regard to America, the parallel is indeed most striking. True, the external surroundings in which the working-class is placed in America are very different, but the same economical laws are at work, and the results, if not identical in every respect, must still be of the same order. Hence we find in America the same struggles for a shorter working-day, for a legal limitation of the working-time, especially of women and children in factories; we find the truck-system in full blossom, and the cottage-system, in rural districts, made use of by the ‘bosses’ as a means of domination over the workers… It will be hardly necessary to point out that the general theoretical standpoint of this book—philosophical, economical, political—does not exactly coincide with my standpoint of to-day. Modern international Socialism, since fully developed as a science, chiefly and almost exclusively through the efforts of Marx, did not as yet exist in 1844. (16) My book represents one of the phases of its embryonic development; and as the human embryo, in its early stages, still reproduces the gill-arches of our fish-ancestors, so this book exhibits everywhere the traces of the descent of Modern Socialism from one of its ancestors, German philosophy. (16)

Engels and William Morris

Such evidence as exists suggests that Engels regarded William Morris, while sincere and personally irreproachable, as sentimental and unpractical, while Morris regarded Engels as bossy. (18) Morris grew to become weary of the (9,11) autocratic Hyndman (11) Democratic Federation (9,11) and in December (7) 1884, (4,7) with the support of Engels, Morris and eight out of the ten members of the executive of the (S.D.F.) (7) resigned. (7,8) Engels was rightly conscious of his position as the living representative of Marxism and of his immense experience. (18) He was used to being consulted by Socialists from all over the world, and expected that his advice would be, if not always followed, at least seriously considered. (18) With many calls on his time and energy he tended to be dismissive of the small and divided Socialist Movement in Britain. (18) As he wrote to Laura Lafargue: ‘Morris is a settled sentimental Socialist; he would be easily managed if one saw him regularly a couple of times a week, but who has the time to do it, and if you drop him for a month he is sure to lose himself again’. (18)

Death

Engels died (1,2) after a prolonged battle with (12) throat (9,16) (laryngeal (17)) cancer (9,15) in London (4,9) on August 5th (2) 1895, (1,2) at the age of 74. (9) Following cremation at Woking, (16) at his request, (13) his ashes were scattered from Beachy Head close to Eastbourne. (13,16)

Estimates

He was an illustrious (12) German (1,2) socialist (1,3) political (3,5) philosopher, (2,3) historian, (2,17) communist, (2,5) social scientist, (2,5) author (3,5) political economist (7) sociologist, (2,17) journalist and businessman. (2,9)

MarxEngelsBerlinStatues

Figure 11Statue of Engels and Marx in Berlin

He lived in Constantinople and encouraged the Turkish government, from whom he was making a lot of money as a war profiteer, to join the war on Germany’s side. (14) It was he who first said to the Germans that a Bolshevik Revolution would help them win the war. (14) This was the origin of the scheme by which Lenin was sent into Russia by the Germans. (14) His ‘April Theses’, promising Peace, Bread and Land, appealed to peasants and workers alike. (14) On the eve of the revolution of October 1917, in The State and Revolution he proposed “to subject the insurrection of the proletarian and non-proletarian masses to our influence, to our direction, to use it in our best interests.” (14) In power he did this, introducing a dictatorship nominally of the Proletariat but actually of the Bolsheviks, and using it to take control of the economy in ‘War Communism’. (14) In his foreign policy he encouraged revolutionary activity to discomfit the imperialists, but his pragmatism showed after the failure in Poland, when he made alliances such as the Rapallo Pact with capitalist Germany. (14) Stalin codified the body of ideas that, under the name of Marxism-Leninism, constituted the official doctrine of the Soviet and eastern European communist parties. (14) Stalin was a man of action in a slightly different sense than was Lenin. (14) Gradually taking over power after Lenin’s death in 1924, he pursued the development of the Soviet Union with great vigour. (14) He practised Marxism, assimilating and simplifying it. (14) His work ‘Problems of Leninism’ set forth an ideology of power and activism that rode roughshod over the relatively delicate approach of Lenin. (14) “The history of the development of society is, above all, the history of the development of production, the history of the modes of production which succeed one another through the centuries.” Since the process of development takes place by leaps, one passes suddenly from a succession of slow quantitative changes to a radical qualitative change6. (14) He wrote the peasantry out of the script as firmly as Lenin had written them in. (14) In 1925 Marx and Engels’ ‘The German Ideology’, which they had written in 1845, was finally published. (16) Dialectics of Nature (German: “Dialektik der Natur”) is an unfinished 1883 work by Engels that applies Marxist ideas – particularly those of dialectical materialism – to science. (17) It was also published in 1925, in the USSR. (17) Whereas Marx expected successful revolution to come primarily from the intellectual development of the working class, Stalin favoured a dictatorial policy to increase industrialization and collectivize agriculture through ruthless repression and a strong centralization of power. (14) Nothing can be judged from the point of view of “eternal justice” or any other preconceived notion and no social system is immutable. (14) For Stalin what counted was the immediate goal, the practical result. (14) Only the end justified the means. (14) Leon Trotsky disagreed with Stalin. (14) The revolution could not be carried out in isolation, as Stalin maintained it could: the capitalist countries would try to destroy it. (14) It must be worldwide and permanent, directed against the liberal and nationalist bourgeoisie of all countries. (14) In Nazi Germany the works of Communist writers and philosophers ranked high on the list of the books to be burned, and Engels’ works were targeted immediately by the instigators of book burnings. (7) Tristram Hunt argues that Engels has become a convenient scapegoat, too easily blamed for the state crimes of the Soviet Union, Communist Southeast Asia and China. (17) “Engels is left holding the bag of 20th century ideological extremism,” Hunt writes, “while Marx is rebranded as the acceptable, post–political seer of global capitalism.” Hunt largely exonerates Engels stating that “in no intelligible sense can Engels or Marx bear culpability for the crimes of historical actors carried out generations later, even if the policies were offered up in their honour.” Other writers, while admitting the distance between Marx and Engels and Stalin, are less charitable, noting for example that the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin predicted the oppressive potential of their ideas. (17) “It is a fallacy that Marxism’s flaws were exposed only after it was tried out in power…. (17) [Marx and Engels] were centralisers. (17) While talking about ‘free associations of producers’, they advocated discipline and hierarchy.” (17) Paul Thomas, of the University of California, Berkeley, claims that while Engels had been the most important and dedicated facilitator and diffuser of Marx’s writings, he significantly altered Marx’s intents as he held, edited and released them in a finished form, and commentated on them. (17) Engels attempted to fill gaps in Marx’s system and extend it to other fields. (17) He stressed historical materialism in particular, assigning it a character of scientific discovery and a doctrine, indeed forming Marxism as such. (17) A case in point is Anti-Dühring, which supporters of socialism, like its detractors, treated as an encompassing presentation of Marx’s thought. (17) And while in his extensive correspondence with German socialists Engels modestly presented his own secondary place in the couple’s intellectual relationship and always emphasised Marx’s outstanding role, Russian communists like Lenin raised Engels up with Marx and conflated their thoughts as if they were necessarily congruous. (17) Soviet Marxists then developed this tendency to the state doctrine of dialectical materialism. (17) The liberal Left continue to push their radical agenda against American values. (11) The good news is there is a solution. (11) Few people who call themselves Marxists have ever even bothered to read “Das Kapital.” (11) If one did read it, he would see that people who call themselves Marxists have little in common with Marx. (11) For those who see Marx as their hero, there are a few historical tidbits they might find interesting. (11) Despite the fact that in the 20th Century alone communism was responsible for more than 100 million murders, much of the support for communism and socialism is among intellectuals. (11) The reason they do not condemn the barbarism of communism is understandable. (11) Richard Pipes explains: ‘Intellectuals, by the very nature of their professions, grant enormous attention to words and ideas, and they are attracted by socialist ideas. They find that the ideas of communism are praiseworthy and attractive; that, to them, is more important than the practice of communism. Nazi ideals, on the other hand, were pure barbarism; nothing could be said in favour of them. That means leftists around the world will continue to celebrate the ideas of communism.’ (11) Engels is now recognised as one of the founding fathers of Marxist communism, and was venerated in communist countries like the USSR, (15) although former Labour MP Tristram Hunt pointed out that ‘This great lover of the good life, passionate advocate of individuality, and enthusiastic believer in literature, culture, art and music as an open forum could never have coped with the Soviet Communism of the 20th century.’ (17) However, since 1931, Engels has had a city named after him – Engels in Saratov Oblast, Russia. (17) It served as the capital of the Volga German Republic within Soviet Russia. (17) A town named Marx is located 30 miles (48 km) northeast. (17) Since the 1970s, some critics have challenged Engel’s view that scientific socialism is an accurate representation of Marx’s intentions, and he has even been blamed for some of the errors in Marx’s theory. (16) In 2014, Engels’s “magnificent beard” inspired a climbing wall sculpture in Salford. (17) The 16 feet (4.9 m) high beard statue – a “symbol of wisdom and learning” – was planned to stand on the campus of the University of Salford. (17) The arts company behind the piece, Engine, said that “the idea came from a 1980s plan to relocate an Eastern Bloc statue of the thinker to Manchester.” (17)

MarxEngelsStamp

Figure 12 Stamp for centenary of 1848

Bibliography

BiographyEngels

Bibliographical notes

4 and 6 similar phrasing. 12 and 13 very similar but contradict! Not allowing corroboration any more. 16 and 13 also similar phrasing.

FRESCI Analysis

Foreign and Military

Evils of Capitalism crossed boundaries in Europe and beyond – Imperialism; 1848 defeated militarily; Revolution brought about eventually by WW1; Engels Military service

Religion and Ideas

Passim; German philosophy, Adam Smith; opium of the masses; Young Hegelians; Hegel resolution by conflict.

Economic and Financial

Passim; Primacy of economics; Control of means of production and exchange; Labour theory of Value; surplus value; Engels wealthy and financed Marx; Poverty caused by unemployment

Social/Cultural

Marriage for property; housing, sanitation etc bad.

Constitutional

Lack of Economic freedom nullifies political liberty; Revolution; withering away of the state;

Individual/Random

Champagne Socialist; Escape from s Germany; safe houses; Mary;

1 Hence ‘We must make up the ground in ten years…’

2 Witte’s loans

3 Witte’s loans

4 If they wrote it for the German Communist League, they could not have started before they arrived in Belgium, either it cannot have been published in February 1848, or Marx cannot have been expelled from France in April 1845.

5 Geographically chaotic. Kaiserslautern is nowhere near Elberfeld or Baden-Baden, nor Bavaria, though it may have been in the Kingdom of Bavaria. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Bavaria#/media/File:Kingdom_of_Bavaria_1815.svg suggests that it wasn’t

6 Hence ‘We must make up the ground in ten years…’

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