Assassination at Sarajevo

Assassination at Sarajevo, 1914

Sarajevoll

 

In the body of the text, material in Times New Roman Black Bold like this was corroborated by at least two sources: material in any other format was from a single source.

Contents

On June 28th, 1914, (1,2) Austria’s [OR] Austria-Hungary’s (3,5) Archduke (1,3) Francis (1,15) [OR] Franz (2,3) Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo (1,2) with his wife Sophie (2,3) Duchess of Hohenberg. (6,8)

The General Situation in Bosnia

The Balkan Region of Europe entered the twentieth century much as she left it: (15) a cauldron of seething political intrigue (15,17) needing only the slightest increase of heat to boil over into open conflict. (15) The archduke was heir (3,5) presumptive (8) to the (3,5) imperial (3) throne of Austria-Hungary (3,5) [OR] ‘the Austro-Hungarian Empire’ (14,15) as the nephew of (14) Emperor Franz Josef. (14,17) An assassination of the Emperor was out of the question. (17) He was well respected throughout the empire and his heir’s politics were even worse for Serbian cause than his own. (17) Franz Ferdinand, was in favour of giving an equal voice to all the Slavs of the empire – a belief counter to the very core of the Serb cause. (17) Franz Ferdinand and his wife (2,6) were visiting the city (2,7), which lay in (2,4) and was the capital of (7) the Austro-Hungarian province of (2,4) Bosnia-Herzegovina. (2,17) [OR] Bosnia (5.7), [OR] Bosnia and Herzegovnia. (9) or Herzegovina. (14) This was former Ottoman territory (14,17) in the turbulent Balkan region (14,15) that had been annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908, to Serbia’s anger. (5,14) Bosnia was in the very south-east corner (11) [OR] south (8,17) of the Austrian empire (11) and some people there (11) the ‘Bosnian Serbs’ (17) wanted to break off Austria-Hungary’s south-Slav provinces (8) so that they would be independent from Austria and set up their own (8,11) new (8) state which could run itself, (8,11) which would be called Yugoslavia. (8) [OR] so that they would be united with their brothers living (14,17) across the Drina (Dunav) (17) in Serbia proper. (17,14) Austria-Hungary, having annexed Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1908, was not about to let go of it. (17) Maybe an act of supreme defiance would convince Vienna otherwise; maybe the dream of a greater Serbia could be realized by such an act. (17) The political objective of this assassination was therefore to rid Bosnia of Austrian rule (8,11)

The Archduke’s Plan to Visit;

The Archduke was Inspector General of the Austrian army. (17) and had accepted an invitation (7) to inspect the (5,9) imperial (14) Austro-Hungarian (9) [OR] Austrian (15) army (5.9) which was conducting exercises nearby. (15,17) The date scheduled for his visit, June 28, (14,17) was St. Vitus day. (17) It coincided with the anniversary of the (14,17) First (14) Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which medieval Serbia was defeated by the Turks. (14,17) The Serbs would mark the day with a feast. (17) Despite the fact that Serbia did not truly lose its independence until the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, June 28 was a day of great significance to Serbian nationalists. (14) It was one on which they could be expected to take exception to a demonstration of Austrian imperial strength in Bosnia. (14) [OR] Diplomacy would ordain a visit to Sarajevo on June 28th, St. Vitus’ Day, a Serbian holiday, but the diplomatic teletype had been busy clicking out warnings from consulates all over the world. (17) The messages were clear: the Archduke would be wise to cancel his planned visit to Sarajevo. (17)

The Black Hand

They warned of possible trouble (7,11) in the form of terrorist activity conducted by a nationalist organization (7) [OR] a Serbian terrorist group, (9) called the “Black Hand”, (7,9) but the Archduke ignored the warnings. (7,11) The conspirators belonged to a secret organisation (9,17) known as the ‘Black Hand’. (9) [OR] to the secret Serbian nationalist movement (17) that later became known as (8) Mlada Bosna (17) (“Young Bosnia”). (8,17) Their motives were consistent with that movement’s aims. (8)

Lack of Security

In Vienna, Serbian ambassador Jovan Jovanovic (acting on orders from Prime Minister Pasic) visited Austrian finance Minister Bilinski to warn that if the Archduke should visit then: “some young Serb might put a live round instead of a blank cartridge in his gun, and fire it”. (17) Belinski replied: “Let us hope nothing happens,” Jovanovic’s warning was never passed on. (17) For some reason, despite all of these pleas and warnings, the Archduke not only insisted on going to Sarajevo, but he also put the city off-limits to the nearby Austrian army for the day. (17) This same army could have been used to provide a much needed security presence on the crowded streets. (17) Perhaps he didn’t want any trace of Vienna to ruin his anniversary, (17) because June 28th was also Franz Ferdinand’s (14,17) 14th (17) wedding anniversary. (14,17) His beloved wife, Sophie, (14,17) a former lady-in-waiting, (14) was denied royal status in Austria (6,14) she not being of royal enough blood. (6,14) Although an aristocrat, (6,14) she was from a poor Czech (14) family of lower status than her husband. (6,14) In Vienna she was not allowed to ride in the same car with her husband during high affairs of state. (17) Nor were the couple’s children. (14) But this was Sarajevo, (17) in Bosnia, (14,17) an area of uncertain status as an annexed territory. (14), Sophie could appear beside him at official proceedings. (14) It was the first time in her married life, that Sophie had been able to accompany her husband on a state visit. (6) On their anniversary, she would therefore be afforded all the royal treatment of which she was deprived at home. (17) The royal couple arrived by train (5,7) at 9.28 (5) am, (5,7) on that Sunday morning, (12) It was intended that they would be met at the station (9) and taken in an (6,9) open (6,11) car (6,9) to tour the city (6) on the way to the City Hall (7,9) where they would have lunch. (9) The day before, local newspapers had published their travel route (6,16) so spectators would know where to stand in order to catch a glimpse of the couple as they rode by. (16) The procession was to move down the Appel Quay (5,12) along the northern bank of the Miljacka River. (16)

The Conspirators’ Preparations

There were seven (5.9) [OR] six (8) conspirators, (5,9) young (4,5) tubercular (17) Bosnian Serbs (5,17) [OR] five Serbs and one Bosnian Muslim. (8) They were Serbian (14) [OR] Slavic (15) nationalists, who believed they should become part of the newly independent and ambitious Serbian nation. (14) 28th June 1914 would be the day they made their mark for the Serbian cause – a mark that would ultimately be left on the entire world. (17) The group of seven ranged in age from 19 to 27. (17) [OR] The youngest of their group was just seventeen. (12) Only one had a police record which was only for striking a teacher. (17) They all had tuberculosis, a death sentence in 1914. (17) Their names were were Nedjelko (7,12) Cabrinovic (7,9), Trifko Grabez, Mohammed Mehmedbasic, (16,17) Vasco (16,17) [OR] Veljko (12) Cubrilovic, Danilo Ilic, Cvijetko Popovic (12,16) and Gavrilo Princip. (3,5) A third party, Serbia, figured prominently in the plot. (4,15) Shadowy forces (4) the “Union or Death” terrorist league (17) in Serbia, (4,12) coordinated by Danilo Ilić, (8) provided the guns, ammunition and training that made the assassination possible. (12,15) This faction of the Serbian “Black Hand” (17) was under the leadership of (8,17) a “Colonel Apis” (the bee), whose real identity was (17) Colonel Dragutin Dimitrievitch, no less than the head of Serbian military intelligence. (8,17) He was assisted by his righthand man Major Vojislav Tankosić, and the spy Rade Malobabić. (8) Major Tankosić (8) armed the assassins with (8,12) six small (12) bombs (8,12) and four (12) pistols (8,12) from the Serbian state arsenal in Kragujevac, (12) and trained them (8,12) in the use of weapons (9,12) in Belgrade. (12) They had learned bomb throwing and marksmanship. (9) The assassins were given access to the same clandestine network of safe-houses and agents that Rade Malobabić used for the infiltration of weapons and operatives into Austria-Hungary. (8) They intended to assassinate Franz Ferdinand (5,6) and the planned visit provided the ideal opportunity to kill him (9) as he drove along (5,12) the main road in Sarajevo, (5) the Appel Quay. (5,12) The assassins arrived in Sarajevo on June 3rd with pistols, bombs and cyanide to await the visit of the Archduke. (17) Danilo Ilić, Čubrilović, and Civijetko Popović had joined the others when they arrived in Bosnia. (12)

Events before Lunch

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, arrived in Sarajevo (7,16) sometime before ten in the morning of June 28. (16) It was a sunny (15,16) and very hot. (17) morning. (15,16) After a short welcoming ceremony at the train station, the couple was ushered into a 1910 Gräf & Stift touring car. (16) Owned by Count Franz Harrach. (16) A six-car (7,15) [OR] 4-Car (17) motorcade duly drove the Archduke and Duchess (7,15) and members of their entourage (16) to city hall (7,15) the Town Hall (16) for the official reception. (7,16) The archduke and his wife were in the second car (4,17) with the top rolled back (7,11) as was common at the time (11) in order to give the crowds a good view. (7,16) Princip and his six (16) or 5 (8) co-conspirators had obtained the route from the newspapers. (16) That morning, after receiving their weapons and their instructions from a local Black Hand operative, they split up (16) and positioned themselves (4,9) at strategic points along the riverbank, (16) the previously announced route (6,12) that Franz Ferdinand’s car would follow (9,15) to City Hall. (15) [OR] from the City Hall to the inspection, (9) the conspirators were waiting among the onlookers. (4) Each took a different position, ready to attack the royal car if the opportunity presented itself. (15) On their way to city hall they were to cross the Miljacka river at Cumuria Bridge. (17) Mehmedbasic and Cabrinovic were waiting. (16,17) mingling with the crowds (16) near the Cumurja (16) or Cumuria (17) Bridge (16,17) where they would be the first of the conspirators to see the procession going by. (16) Vaso Čubrilović and Cvjetko Popović positioned themselves further up the Appel Quay. (16) Gavrilo Princip and Trifko Grabež stood near the Lateiner Bridge toward the center of the route while Danilo Ilić moved about trying to find a good position. (16)

The Grenade Attack

The couple very nearly escaped their fate. (4) The first two terrorists were unable to throw their grenades because the car was travelling quite fast. (9,15) [OR] Mehmedbašić was the first to see the car appear; however, as it approached, he froze with fear and was unable to take action. (16) [OR] could not throw his bomb because a policeman was blocking his way. (17) The streets were too crowded (9,15) and in the crowd were many Serbians; throwing a grenade would have killed many innocent people. (15) [OR] The first conspirator who tried to kill Franz Ferdinand (5) was a Black Hand agent, (7,9) a Serbian nationalist (14) named Nedjelko (7,12) Cabrinovic. (7,9) [OR] Čabrinović. (12,15) or Gabrinovic. (15) He (4,5) [OR] Gavrilo Princip (11) acted without hesitation. (16) His path was not blocked (17) and he pulled a bomb from his pocket, struck the detonator against a lamp post, (16) and threw it (4,5) [OR] a grenade (6,7) at the Archduke’s car. (4,5) This took place at 10:10 a.m., (7) on the Appel Quay (12) as the motorcade passed the central police station. (7) The driver (7,16) Leopold Loyka (16) accelerated when he saw the flying object, (7,16) so the bomb missed. (4,5) [OR] it bounced off the (12.14) side of the (15) open convertible car. (12,14) [OR] It was a good shot but the Archduke, protecting Sophie, deflected it onto the street. (17) It hit (11) [OR] exploded underneath the wheel of (6,7) [OR] exploded near (15,16) the next car (6,7) causing debris to fly and nearby shop windows to shatter. (16) Francis Ferdinand with presence of mind threw himself back and was uninjured. (15) He (5,6) and his wife (6,9) escaped unhurt, (5,6) [OR] his wife suffered a small (12,15) scratch on the neck (16) [OR] wound (12,15) on her cheek. (12,15) caused by flying debris from the explosion. (16,17) A few (12) two (7) [OR] three – Count Boos-Waldeck, Colonel von Merizzi and Sophie’s attendant, Countess Lanjus. (17) of the third car’s occupants (7,12) and about 20 (16) [OR] a dozen (15) spectators. (7,12) [OR] an Austrian (11) officer (11,14) [OR] Several officers (15) in attendance. (9,15) had been injured. (9,11) and had to be taken to hospital. (9) [OR] (two of the car’s occupants along with a dozen spectators (7) were killed (6,7) Immediately after throwing the bomb, Čabrinović, swallowed his (16,17) vial of (16) cyanide and jumped (16,17) over a railing (16) down into the bed of the river (16,17) Miljacka.. (17) The cyanide, however, failed to work (16) [OR] he vomited up the poison. (17) He found that the river was only a few inches deep. (17) and was caught by a group of policemen (16,17) who arrested him (5,7) and dragged him away. (16) The Appel Quay had erupted into chaos by now and the archduke had ordered the driver to stop so that the injured parties could be attended to. (16) Once satisfied that nobody was seriously injured, he ordered the procession (16) [OR] The first two cars (16) to continue to the Town Hall. (16,17) [OR] The mayor of Sarajevo, Fehim Effendi Curcic, rode in the first car and was unaware of what had transpired at the bridge. (17) The noise of the motorcade had drowned out the bomb. (17) Franz Ferdinand joked that the would-be assassin would probably be given the Medal of Merit in Vienna. (17) The couple were hurriedly taken to the Town Hall, (12,15) The motorcade passed Cubrilovic, Popovic, and Ilic who did nothing. (17) The other conspirators along the route had by now received news of Čabrinović’s failed attempt and most of them, (16) probably out of fear, (4,16) decided to leave the scene (16) without interfering with the visitors. (15) This could have been the end of it all—another failed assassination attempt, like there had been so many others. (12) Nevertheless, Sarajevo was a dangerous place to be. (11)

At the Town Hall

The procession continued on to the Town Hall, where Sarajevo’s mayor (16,17) Curcic (17) launched into his welcoming speech (16,17) as if nothing had happened. (16) The archduke immediately interrupted and (16,17) seizing him by the arm (17) admonished him, outraged at the bombing attempt that had put him and his wife in such danger. (7, 16) So, you welcome your guests with bombs?!” He also reportedly stated, “What is the good of your speeches? I come to Sarajevo on a visit, and I get bombs thrown at me. (7) [OR] “One comes here to visit and is received with bombs. Mr. Mayor, what do you say? It’s outrageous! All right, now you may speak. (17) He questioned the (7,16) ‘outrageous’ (7,17) lapse in security. (7,16) The archduke’s wife, Sophie, gently urged her husband to calm down. (16) The mayor was allowed to continue his speech (16,17) in what was later described by witnesses as a bizarre and otherworldly spectacle. (16): The Archduke calmed down during the mayor’s speech and gave the diplomatic closing words: “I assure you of my unchanged regard and favour.” (17)

The Final Journey

Cancellation discussed and Rejected

After lunch (9) [OR] a reception (10,15) at the City Hall, (9,15) Franz Ferdinand was advised to cancel the rest of the tour (12,15) General (15) Oskar (17) Potiorek (16,17) the Military Governor of the province (17) [OR] the Austrian Commander, pleaded with Francis Ferdinand to leave the city as quickly as possible by the shortest route, as it was seething with rebellion. (15) Franz Ferdinand refused, insisting the couple visit some of the injured attendants (9,11) [OR] the injured officer (11) in hospital (9,11) before continuing with the official programme. (12) He wanted to demonstrate that his family was in control of Sarajevo and to have stopped the tour would have been seen as a sign of weakness by those who did not want Bosnia and Sarajevo ruled by the Austrians. (11) He begged Sophie to stay behind but she insisted on accompanying him. (17) [OR] Potiorek reassured (16,17) the angry (17) Archduke that the danger had passed, (16,17) Your Imperial Highness, you can travel quite happily. I take the responsibility”. (17)And with that they were off. (17) [OR] the archduke insisted on abandoning the day’s remaining schedule; (16) and tried to flee, (4) [OR] As a compromise (12) the Archduke ordered that his route through Sarajevo be changed at the last minute to visit the injured [OR] The Archduke decided to abandon the visit and return home (5,15) via a different route to the one planned. (5,12), Some discussion on the safest way to proceed to the hospital ensued. (16) and it was decided that quickest way would be to go by the same route. (15,16) [OR] It was agreed that the convoy should not, as planned, travel down Franz-Joseph-Strasse. (12)

The Route

Franz Ferdinand’s car sped down the Appel Quay, where the crowds had thinned out by now. (16) No one had told the driver (5,12) Leopold Loyka (16) the route had changed. (5,12) [OR] Unfortunately, his driver did not fully understand his instructions (11) [OR] The Archduke’s chauffeur was following the mayor’s car. (17) On the way back, (5,6) to the palace (7) [OR] to the hospital (9) [OR] to the manœuvres (5) They passed the sixth assassin, Grabez, at Imperial Bridge. (17) He merely watched as the car sped by. (17) He (Loyka) (4,5) [OR] The mayor’s driver (17) took a wrong turn (4,5) Where he should have taken the Appel Quay, (16,17) towards the hospital, he turned left at the Lateiner Bridge (16) into a side street (7) called Franz Josef Street (5,12), (a street named after the Archduke’s uncle) (17) as previously arranged, (5,12) towards the National Museum, which the Archduke had planned to visit next prior to the assassination attempt. (16) [OR] he got lost. (11) [OR] The road to the maneuvers was shaped like the letter V, making a sharp turn at the bridge over the River Nilgacka [Miljacka]. (15) Francis Ferdinand’s car could go fast enough until it reached this spot but here it was forced to slow down for the turn. (15) Potiorek, riding with the Archduke and Sophie, (17) yelled out to the driver that he had made a mistake (16,17) “What’s this? We’ve taken the wrong way!” (17) When told of his error, (5,16) [OR] Realising his mistake (9) he stopped the car (4,5) to check where he was [OR] to turn around. (5,9) [OR] The driver attempted (11) [OR] began (9) to reverse (9,11) out on to the main street. (11) [OR] as he fumbled with the gears to back up, (4) the car stopped. (5,11)

The car stops

By bad luck (10) the car was in front of (5,11) one of Cabrinovic’s cohorts, (14) a 19-year-old (7,14) Serbian (3,10) or Slavic (15) nationalist (3,7) called Gavrilo Princip, (3,5) the last (4) of the Black Hand (11) conspirators. (4,5)) Princip was the leader of the conspiracy. (15) [OR] He was a crack shot, but he was not the main assassin. (6) His job was only to step in if things went wrong. (6) Princip had taken his stand here. (12,15) [OR] He was on his way home thinking he had failed, (5,16) and that the archduke’s return route would have been altered by now. (16) [OR] He and Grabež, had not given up after the failure of Cabrinovic’s bomb. (16,17) [OR] he was trying to disguise himself among the many people who lined the streets fearing the police might arrest him. (11) [OR] He happened to be loitering (14) [OR] He was standing outside a deli (6,16) [OR] was in the deli (16) in the shade of the shop awnings (13) where he had gone (6,16) to buy a sandwich (16) after the failed assassination attempt. (6,16) Loyka (16) had stopped the vehicle and was attempting to reverse(4,16) as Princip emerged from the delicatessen (16) and was surprised to see Franz Ferdinand’s car directly in front of him. (6,12) The archduke and his wife were only a few feet from him. (16,17) Unlike his cohorts, Princip acted quickly and precisely, (17) Not believing his luck (11) he (4,5) stepped up (4,7) [OR] down from (15) the kerb (15) and pulled out (5,11) a gun, (5,6) which was a .22 calibre Browning (6) revolver, (11) from his coat (15) and took aim. (13)

Princip shoots the Royal Couple

The sight of the Duchess gave him momentary pause: ‘as I saw that a lady was sitting next to him, I reflected for a moment whether to shoot or not. (13) At the same time, I was filled with a peculiar feeling…’ (13) Before the car could complete its turn (17) he fired (6,7) two shots (9,15) [OR] though witnesses would later say they heard three shots. (16) into the car (4,5) hitting the passengers, (4,5) at point blank range. (4,10) [OR] A few metres away from his target. (12) The first bullet passed through the door of the car (13) into the pregnant (9,15) Duchess (5,6) Sophia (9) [OR] Sophie’s (5,6) abdomen, (7,9) severing the stomach artery. (13) The second shot (13) hit Franz Ferdinand in the neck. (5,7) severing his jugular vein (5,13) [OR] close to the heart, (15) fatally injuring him. (5,6) Book 5 has a different order of events: There was then a tussle, during which (5) Princip shot (5,6) and killed (5) [OR] fatally injured (6) The Duchess. (5) At first it appeared the shooter had missed his mark, because Franz Ferdinand and his wife remained motionless and upright in their seats. (13) In reality, they were both already dying. (13) Potiorek’s recollection conveys a similar sense of unreality -the governor remembered sitting stock still in the car, gazing into the face of the killer as the shots were fired, but seeing no smoke or muzzle flash (13) and hearing only muted shots, (13,17) that seemed to come from far away. (13) Sophie died almost instantly. (9) Version (9) clearly suggests that Sophie was hit first, whereas Version (5) clearly suggests that she was shot second. (5) There was also a photographer at the scene and he captured scenes that were printed throughout the world. (11) Standing on the car’s (10,15) sideboard (10) [OR] running board (13,15) on the left hand side of the car (13) was Count (10,15) Franz (10,16) von (10) Harrach, (10,13) the owner of the car. (16) He noticed that blood was trickling from the archduke’s mouth and ordered the driver to drive as quickly as possible to the Hotel (16) [OR] Palace (13) Konak (13,16), the governor’s residence, (10) to seek help. (14) This was the place where the royal couple was supposed to stay during their visit. (16)

To the Hospital

He recalled: ‘As the car quickly reversed (10) [OR] completed its turn (17) and roared away (16,17) across the river (16) The Archduke opened his mouth and a stream of blood poured out (17) or “a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness’s mouth onto my right check. (10,15) As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out to him, “For God’s sake! (10) [OR] ‘In Heaven’s name, (15) [OR] For heaven’s sake (17) What has happened to you?” (10,15) She was in shock and unaware that she too had been shot. (17) She then lost consciousness. (17) [OR] Sophie had died instantly. (15) She teetered sideways (13) [OR] slumped over in her seat. (16) and slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, (10,15) [OR] with her face between his knees. (10,15) Harrach had no idea that Sophie had been hit as well, and he (10) and Potiorek (13,17) thought Sophie had simply fainted with fright. (10,13) Only when he saw blood issuing from the archduke’s mouth did Potiorek realize something more serious was afoot. (13) The plumed helmet, with the green ostrich feathers, slipped from the Archduke’s head. (13) Then Harrach heard Franz Ferdinand say (10,15) in a soft voice, (13) Sophie, Sophie, (10,13) [OR] ‘Sopherl, Sopherl’, (15) [OR] “Sophie dear, Sophie dear, (17) don’t die. Stay alive for the children!” (10,13) The words would become famous throughout the monarchy. (13) [OR] He uttered only one word, ‘Sofia’ — a call to his stricken wife. (15) Harrach seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, (10,13) to stop his head dropping forward (10,15) [OR] Then his head fell back (15) and he collapsed. (15,17) Harrach asked him if he was in great pain. (10,13) The archduke was still alive but barely audible as he (16) answered (10,13) six or seven (10) several times (10,13) in a whisper (13,16) but quite distinctly, (10,15) “It is nothing!” (10,13) His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, times, ever more faintly as he gradually (10,15) lost consciousness, (10,13) Then came a brief pause followed by (10,15) a convulsive rattle in his throat, (10) [OR] a violent choking sound (15) caused by a loss of blood. (10,15) [OR] He died almost instantly. (15) The noise in Franz Ferdinand’s throat ceased on arrival at (10,15) the Konak. (13,15)

At the Hospital

The two unconscious bodies (10,13) were carried into the building (10,16) and up to their suite, (16) on the first floor, (13) where they were attended to by regimental surgeon Eduard Bayer. (16) The archduke’s coat was removed to reveal a wound in his neck just above the collarbone. (16) Blood was gurgling from his mouth. (16) After a few moments it was determined that Franz Ferdinand had died from his wound. (16) By 11.30am, (5,17) [OR] ‘a short while later’, therefore later than 11.30 since (9) says it was ‘after lunch (9) Franz Ferdinand had bled to death, (5,16) shortly after arriving at the palace. (12,16) [OR] in the car. (7,12) “His Highness’s suffering is over,” the surgeon announced. (16) Sophie died in the car, (7,12) before reaching the hospital. (7) [OR] the governor’s residence. (10,16) She had been laid out on a bed in the next room. (16) Everyone still assumed she had simply fainted but when her mistress removed her clothes she discovered blood and a bullet wound in her lower right abdomen. (16) She had already been dead by the time they had reached the Konak. (7,12)

Princip’s Arrest

Meanwhile, back at Francis Joseph Street (17) behind the retreating vehicle, (13) the crowd closed in around Gavrilo Princip. (13,16) [OR] The officers seized Princip. (15) The revolver was knocked from (13,14) [OR] wrested from (16) his hands (13,14) by a bystander who threw himself upon him (14) as he raised it to his temple to take his own life. (13,14) So was the packet of cyanide he endeavoured without success to swallow. (13) [OR] He managed to swallow his cyanide but (16,17) as was the case with Cabrinovic (17) it, too, failed to work. (16,17), only making him retch. (17) A mob of angry onlookers (13,14) [OR] The officers (15) attacked Princip. (14,15) and roughed him up. (13,16) He was seized (13,16) tackled to the ground (16) and beaten (13,16) with walking sticks (13 and punched, and kicked. (16) [OR] he was beaten over the head by the officers with the flat of their swords. (15) He would have been lynched on the spot (13) if police officers had not managed to drag him off into custody. (13,14) [OR] The officers knocked him down, kicked him, scraped the skin from his neck with the edges of their swords, tortured him, all but killed him. (15) He was, astonishingly, taken into custody alive. (17)

The Road to War

The great Prussian statesman Otto von Bismarck, the man most responsible for the unification of Germany in 1871, was quoted as saying at the end of his life that “One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans. (14) ” It went as he predicted. (14) The conspirators could not know, and certainly had not planned, that a world war would result from this act of violence, but in the weeks that followed, decisions were made in Europe’s capitals that ensured that the death of this one man would lead to the deaths of millions. (12) The murder of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo is accepted by historians as (11) the spark that started World War I, (2,3) though serious trouble – long term causes – had been brewing for sometime. (11) Not only World War One, but World War Two, the Cold War and its conclusion all trace their origins to the gunshots that interrupted that summer day. (15) The assassination set in train a series of diplomatic events (10,14) that led inexorably to the outbreak of war in Europe at the end of July 1914. (10) Austria-Hungary, like many in countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Slav nationalism once and for all. (14) Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum against Serbia, which was partially rejected. (8) As Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention–which would likely involve Russia’s ally, France, and possibly Britain as well. (14) Austria-Hungary then declared war. (3,8) on Serbia. (3,14) The tenuous peace between Europe’s great powers collapsed. (14) Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun. (14) Thus the network of alliances that existed between the European powers eventually dragged the entire continent into war. (3,14)

Subsequent History of the Individuals Concerned

Because of Sophie’s lower-rank, she was not allowed to be entombed in the imperial crypt. (6) Instead, she and her husband were buried side-by-side at Artstetten Castle (in Austria). (6) The assassins, (8,17) the key members of the clandestine network, and the key Serbian military conspirators who were still alive (8) were arrested. (8,17) Princip and Cabrinovic both held their tongues under police interrogation. (17), It was Ilic, caught by chance in a suspect roundup, who broke and exposed the identities of his co-conspirators. (17) By July 5th all were apprehended with the exception of Mehmedbasic, the only member to escape. (17) They were tried, convicted and punished. (8) [OR] The only fact that was established was that the weapons had come from Serbia. (17) Those who were arrested in Bosnia were tried in Sarajevo in October 1914. (8) [OR] The inquest lasted through July but was left to Sarajevo by Vienna and, to say the least, was grossly mishandled. (17) The complicity of the Serbian government was never proven. (17) Friedrich von Wiesner, an Austrian official sent to investigate the proceedings in Sarajevo, wired his findings back to Vienna: “There is nothing to indicate that the Serbian government knew about the plot”. (17) This wire would not spare Serbia. (17) The other conspirators were arrested and tried before a Serbian kangaroo court on the French-controlled Salonika Front in 1916–1917 on unrelated false charges; Serbia executed three of the top military conspirators. (8) Much of what is known about the assassinations comes from these two trials and related records. (8)

 

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