On this website there are two kinds of document. The two ‘World Histories’ are normal historical writing, requiring no comment. You just read them.
All the other ones have coloured text. I call them ‘Minigraphs’©, small bits of historical writing designed by me, and they need a bit of explaining. If you click on any of them in the ‘index’, you will see:
Coloured text in various fonts and styles like this, showing that it came from a single source; the number at the end of that section of text tells you which source in the bibliography (booklist)1 it came from.
Text in Black Bold Times New Roman like this shows that AT LEAST TWO sources agreed on it. The numbers (3,5) in brackets after each section show which sources said it. These statements were therefore CORROBORATED. The coloured ones were UNCORROBORATED. In History one of the first questions is ‘Can I trust this’. Minigraphs say ‘you can trust corroborated statements a bit more than uncorroborated ones’.
Every now and then you will see [OR]: this shows where sources contradicted each other. Contradictions should not occur in historical writing, because it is supposed to be true. When I was young, and right up until I had finished ‘studying History’ at Oxford University, I thought there must be a big fat book somewhere with all the true facts in. There is no such book. To do history like a proper scholar you need to read a lot of books, comparing what they say and thinking out why they don’t say the same. If you are too busy for this, minigraphs are for you. I collected the 17 simplest, shortest accounts I could find on the Assassination at Sarajevo in 1914, a world famous event as a cause of World War I. I made a minigraph out of them, and found 97 contradictions! On the first page the web designer has kindly decorated my writing with two pictures, which show the assassin shooting from different sides of the car, which makes 98! If you had a relative bayonetted to death in the mud in the war which followed, you might want to know exactly what caused the war; in that case the contradictions might make you a little bit angry. History upsets everything: there is not a single one of these minigraphs which does not include puzzling contradictions. You may find it just as exciting as I do to write a minigraph yourself, in which case click ‘contact’ at the top and I’ll send you instructions on how I do them.
What is history?
What’s true and what isn’t?
Who writes it?
How do they know?
Historian Hugh Nicklin compares multiple sources on historic people and events as an ongoing endeavor.
Like a world class sleuth, this published author and retired teacher of history sets about getting at the answers to “What really happened?” and “Who says so?”
He then prepares a summary of his research in an ever varied series of “minigraphs”, his own terms for these pieces which are concise and fun to read. You never know what new case in history might intrigue him enough to investigate so there’s no telling what might turn up here next!
Here’s a link to the index listing all mingraphs to date: World History, British History, American History, et. al. [you’ll also see the index in full at the end of this page]:
But I’m getting ahead of myself. I think he’d want us to start at the beginning and to do that you have to know where you are. Our historian is in Bromyard, Herefordshire in England so we’ll start with him from there…
“All history classes should start with a summary of the History of the World, as geography should start with a globe.” ~ Hugh Nicklin
So let’s begin there. Do you have 26 minutes?…
History of the World in 26 Minutes
Historians upset everything. At 13.8 billion years ago, our entire observable universe was the size of a peach and had a temperature of over a trillion degrees. In saying that I’ve already upset some members of all three of the Abrahamic religions, because according to them the world began just over 6000 years ago. As a result of the Big Bang the various stars, planets and other heavenly bodies were thrown out across the universe. Some of them had chemical compositions consistent with the beginning of life. On at least one of them (the one we’re currently occupying) life did indeed begin. Beginning with single celled organisms in the sea we progressed to multicellular ones and in the end to creatures with backbones. Competition for sources of food drove some of them out of the water on to the land, where the struggle to survive continued. I’m writing this near Bromyard, in the English midlands, which started off near the South Pole, gradually moving north by the operation of plate tectonics, gathering with it fossils of tropical animals and plants.
You would have thought that the competition for food would have favoured the big fast fierce creatures like dinosaurs, but their onward march was halted by various extinction events like super volcano eruptions, asteroid impacts and ice ages. Here in my village of Stoke Lacy in Herefordshire I am sitting on the St Maughan’s plateau, on the edge of a valley carved out by a glacier coming down off the Welsh mountains about 450,000 years ago. For the creatures inhabiting the earth this period was a bit like the Grand National Horse Race of 1967: the favourites all fell over, and through the confusion came an unfancied 30-1 outsider to win the race. Homo Sapiens was the Foinavon of species, but with its big brain and opposable thumb it could conceive of strategies to keep warm and outwit its competitors. Humans could make stone tools and weapons to compensate for their basic weaknesses. By hunting animals and collecting fruits they managed to survive. Homo Sapiens, Humans and Hunter Gatherers, all begin with…
For 2 to 3 million years (which we call the old Stone Age), the humans survived by following animals and living off them, until, about 8-10,000 years ago, someone had a bright idea. “What if”, she said “We shoo the herd into that valley? We can close off the end, and then they’ll be there all the time.” She was probably executed as a dangerous radical, but in the end the idea was tried and worked. For the first time tribes were liberated from eternally traipsing after herds of animals, and could occupy one particular place. People could better understand plant growth, and control it. We left our nomadic life behind and developed a pastoral, and finally an agricultural economy. This period is known as the New Stone Age ‘agricultural revolution’. A recent village in north eastern Turkey has been estimated as being about 9000 years old. The Hunter Gatherers had found Homes, so the ‘H’ still works.
When agriculture was practised in fertile, warm river valleys such as those in Iraq, Egypt, China and India it went well, particularly because, at the critical moment, a new strain of wheat evolved, with better food value. Instead of the whole tribe having to work non-stop to eke out an existence, surpluses of grain now allowed some people to be freed to specialise in other things.
We find architects building houses and priests keeping the seasons turning. Trade between specialists gave rise to writing, so that history, in its narrower sense of a written record, became possible.
Metallurgy was discovered. Metal workers discovered bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, which was the earliest useful alternative to stone for tools and weapons. Although copper was relatively plentiful, tin took some finding. Expeditions went out to find and secure sources of tin, which led in turn to wars. Wars provoked the organisation of states and armies, and the formation of Empires.
The earliest emperor, and indeed the earliest human whose name we know was Menes, a pharaoh of Egypt. Menes had no poems written about him, so to illustrate the Imperial dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs I choose Ozymandias. Ozymandias was Rameses II of Egypt’s stage name. With his palaces, statues, chariots, 200 wives and concubines, and 156 children, Rameses was a bog-standard Emperor. Egypt had 31 dynasties of Pharaohs, and I couldn’t fit this talk into 26 minutes if I mentioned all the other emperors in all the other countries, but I can’t ignore China. Emperors like Ozymandias ruled in China, too. The 5000 years of the History of China up to 1911 consists of the rise and fall of eight such dynasties: Shang, Chin, Han, Tang, Sung, Yuan, Ming and Manchu. During the brief Chin dynasty the Great Wall and the terracotta army were made. Wheelbarrows and fireworks were invented, and for most of the 5000 years the Chinese people enjoyed a standard of civilization ahead of the rest of the world. I sum up this section by observing that all these grand empires had one thing in common. None of them was global, and only one of them had involved Bromyard, in England. Empires are ‘Imperial’, so here’s an ‘I’. What’s with the letters ‘H’ and I’, you ask yourself?
The only empire Bromyard had seen was the Roman, as the legionaries hurried through on their way to subdue the tribes of Wales during the First Century AD. Bromyard was not of much interest after that, so no Roman roads went there. When the Romans went home, they left behind a British population. Some of these Britons had converted to Christianity. Most Empires, like Rameses II’s, eventually disintegrated and disappeared, and the Roman one seemed to be going the same way in the ‘Dark Ages’. There was a difference: the Christian church clung on to Roman know-how by its fingertips. Stoke Lacy, was less than 30 miles north of a school in a Celtic Christian monastery where, in the middle of the Dark Ages, you could still learn Latin and become a monk.
In the 900s, while Herefordshire was fighting off Vikings from Scandinavia, the Christian ‘Popes’ in Rome were fighting their corner against the various barbarian leaders who were swirling around them. This required them to have military force or have sand kicked in their faces. They were also having water kicked in their faces, as the Mediterranean had become the playground of Muslim pirates. In the 1090s a pope had a good idea. If he could persuade the Christians to start a Holy War against the Muslims he could recruit an army which would both prevent his local hooligans kicking sand in his face, and also, by conquering Jerusalem, make a start on preventing the Muslim pirates kicking water in his face. Hence the Crusades. Bromyard and the rest of England had been conquered by William the Conqueror in 1066, and it was too soon for the new Norman kings to trust the English with an army at that early stage, so no Englishmen went on the First Crusade, though they went on the others. Astonishingly the First Crusade was successful, but the others went badly. By 1289 the Crusaders had been kicked out of the Middle East, and in 1396 there was a devastating defeat on the banks of the Danube which threatened Europe with Muslim conquest.
From meeting the Muslims in the Middle East the Christians found out about several useful things, such as washing. They were curious about other wonders which might lie in the world beyond that of the Muslims who penned them in. They were about to learn more. For centuries Central Asia had been bandit country, and few made the journey across it safely. In 1200 a brutal new power built an empire stretching across Asia from Beijing to Belarus. This was the Mongol empire of Genghiz Khan.
When the central Asian bandits heard what it was like having molten silver poured in your ears, they lost interest in upsetting their Mongol rulers, and peace broke out. For the first time for centuries you could travel from China to Europe in complete safety. Marco Polo made the trip, and his stories whetted the appetite of the Europeans still further.
Speaking of appetites, it was spices which the Europeans most wanted from the world the other side of the Muslims, but the latest edition of the Muslims, the Ottoman Turks, sat across the Middle East and charged heavy duties on the spices on their way to Europe. The Imperial regimes from Egypt to Turkey via China are all included here under that letter ‘I’.
The Europeans had come a long way since they had blundered off on the First Crusade in 1096. By 1450 they had guns, and could navigate their ships out of sight of land. Europe’s scholars rediscovered Greek versions of texts which contradicted the Latin texts approved by the Catholic Church, and disseminated their findings in printed books. A new mood of curiosity had replaced the gloom and resignation of medieval times.
Even Bromyard had a school. With Shooting and Studying and Sailing ships the Europeans were about to make their mark, which is why our next letter is S (Do you see what it is yet?) H – I – S – ?
The Europeans sent out their armed sailing ships with astrolabes, sternpost rudders and adjustable sails, in search of Christians (officially) and spices (actually). Columbus returned from America excited that he had found China but with nothing much to sell. When Vasco da Gama returned from India he sold spices which he had bought there at a profit at a twentieth of the price the Venetians were charging. He had by-passed the Ottomans via the Cape of Good Hope. When the news of his profit margin got round, a feeding frenzy of trading, conquering and pillaging followed, financed by capitalism. This was Imperialism. Britain joined in in about 1500 after having been ignominiously smashed in the Hundred Years’ War in 1453. Men from Herefordshire sailed to foreign parts and returned enriched by Imperial enterprise.
The appearance of the Europeans in the far corners of the earth provoked different reactions. Primitives like Montezuma, Atahualpa and Cetewayo were duped and conquered. In India Mongols became ‘Moguls’. Akbar was too strong to be conquered: he admired the knowledge of the newcomers but criticised their religious intolerance. His Mogul Empire soon went in to a decline because of the intolerance of his eventual successor Aurungzeb. The Ruler of Japan, the ‘Tokugawa Shogun’ detested the Europeans so much that he shut them out of Japan altogether, cocooning Japan in its medieval state for three centuries, long enough for Gilbert and Sullivan to mock it in ‘The Mikado’. By contrast Czar Peter the Great of Russia was an enthusiastic convert. He built a navy and bullied his nobles into cutting their beards off and speaking French.
But whatever the people they met thought of them, the Europeans almost always won, and more and more easily. The monopoly of knowledge claimed by the Catholic Church was undermined by scientists like Galileo armed with Dutch telescopes: they based their knowledge on replicable experiments rather than ancient books. Steam powered machine technology marched with science, so that the Europeans could eventually comfort themselves with the thought that
“Whatever happens, we have got
The Gatling Gun, and they have not.”
By 1914 the Europeans, including by now the North Americans, owned or were exploiting the whole of the rest of the world. Their supremacy was Total, so I used the letter T for this section of my piece.
(Do you see where this is going? – H – I – S – T – …?)) Such was their superiority that they convinced themselves and many of their opponents that there was a pecking order of merit of the races in the world, with themselves at the top, the yellow and brown in the middle and the black at the bottom. In 1914, however, the white Europeans joyfully fell to fighting each other in the First World War. When the war was over there was a Conference to decide what to do. The US President was Woodrow Wilson, the only President ever with a PhD.
Wilson disapproved of Imperialism on politically correct grounds taken from the French Revolution, which had proclaimed equal political rights: Imperialism, spectacularly, was based squarely on unequal political rights. Wilson arrived at the Conference of Versailles in 1919 determined to chastise his allies Britain and France as much as his enemy, Germany. Russia was not at the Conference, as it had been convulsed by a communist revolution, proposing a new Jerusalem with equal economic rights. This went too far even for Wilson, but when he had finished putting his naughty allies under the disapproving gaze of a super nanny in the form of a world government called the League of Nations, he went home to find that he had gone too far for his own people. The United States declined the role of world nanny, and Wilson had a stroke.
For twenty years Britain and France tried to juggle restoring their empires, paying back what they owed the Americans and nannying the world through the League of Nations, but fierce new animals now roamed the peaceful garden which had once been theirs. Communist Russia, Japan and Germany pursued their own interests and exposed the League of Nations as a paper tiger. It was just a ‘League of Notions’. Britain and France lacked money and the will to fight. They adopted a policy of appeasement: neither wanted to take on either Germany or Russia, so they gave way to several of Hitler’s demands in the hope that he would fight the Russians first and so weaken himself that he could be dealt with afterwards.
This plan failed. War with Germany came first, and when the shooting began in 1940, Britain and France lasted only a couple of months before being comprehensively out generalled. Britain was saved by the English Channel, her radar technologists, her fighter pilots and Hitler’s conviction that we were finished and would soon see the sense of cooperating with him against Russia. In a sense Hitler was right: by the Spring of 1941 Britain was bankrupt and dependent again on American money.
The real European high noon was on the Eastern front, with a million men engaged in battle. Hitler inherited the racism of Old Europe, and despised the Russians as inferiors. He was convinced that the claims of the Communist leader Stalin were bogus, as indeed many of them were. At Stalingrad he found that some of them were not, and Germany started down the road to defeat.
Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the United States had important interests and a navy to protect them. The Japanese had conducted an astonishing modernisation project which had taken them from the medieval world of ‘The Mikado’ to being a modern industrial state in 30 years. They had been hit hard by the Slump of 1929 and needed resources. They decided to take Siberia off the Russians, for whom they had a contempt equal to Hitler’s. To their surprise they were comprehensively defeated by the Russian general Zhukov at the Battle of Khalkhin Gol a week before the Nazi Soviet Pact.
They were forced to rethink, and decided to head into the American dominated Pacific, as their contempt for the Americans was only marginally less than their contempt for the Russians. The Americans saw them coming and cut off their oil supplies. Without bothering to declare war, the Japanese sank the American navy in Pearl Harbor.
The American people, who had voted consistently against joining the war in opinion polls, were outraged and the European War became a World War. Hitler, full of confidence in the moments before the disaster at Stalingrad had become apparent, did the West a very good turn by declaring war on the USA. This enabled Roosevelt to declare war on Germany as well as Japan.
In the east the old European imperial masters proved spectacularly and rapidly unequal to the task of resisting Japan. Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the French and Dutch empires fell at the first attacks. America, the standard bearer of capitalism in the world, was now bizarrely allied with communist Russia against capitalist Germany and Japan. Pearl Harbor had, however, ‘awakened a sleeping Giant’. The vast power of US industry produced forces equal to the tasks. Gradually the Pacific was regained.
After an interval during which the Russians took losses but succeeded in driving the Germans back, Britain and the USA invaded occupied France on D-Day, and the war in the west came to an end with Russian and American soldiers cheerfully saluting each other in the middle of Germany, and soldiers from Bromyard capturing Hitler’s successor in their ancestral homeland near Flensburg in North Germany.
Even though America and Russia fought together against Germany, many people could foresee that once Germany and Japan were laid low, there would have to be a deciding conflict between capitalist America and Communist Russia. The Russian leader Stalin seemed to have decided to prepare for this by leaving the Americans to wear themselves out against the Japanese while Russia recovered its strength. No Russian soldiers came east to help the Americans in the war against Japan. To Stalin’s surprise the Japanese were suddenly knocked out of the war by two American atom bombs.
The stunned silence lasted long enough for Churchill’s declaration that an Iron Curtain had fallen across Europe to inaugurate the ‘Cold War’. Europe was divided into two vassal states, the East the pawn of Moscow, and the West the more querulous subject of Washington to which it still owed vast sums of money from the two world wars.
By turning their great war machines against each other the Europeans had inflicted appalling damage on themselves. They had lost the best of their young men and the fortunes they had made from imperialism. They were bankrupt, and had had to be bailed out by the Americans. They had been Overwhelmed and Outclassed: worst of all, they had lost their good name. Poison gas and barbed wire put paid to the notion that they were a ‘higher civilization’ which turned the other cheek and gave no man evil for evil. The European empires faded away. Fifty years after the Europeans went to war in 1914 their house of cards had fallen down. By 1964 there was hardly anywhere outside Europe ruled by Europeans, unless you counted the Americans, who seemed, with their nuclear weapons, to be now in complete control of the world’s destiny.
But America did not enjoy complete control for long. The idea of economic equality had been too much for Woodrow Wilson, but it had inspired the communists in Russia, and impressed some bright young men in the West. At Cambridge University several wealthy public school (that’s ‘private school’, Americans!) educated students decided that communism was the way to paradise, and capitalism the way to hell. They became Russian spies and, emerging from Cambridge University, found work as British spies. Discovering the secrets of the atom bomb, they gave them to the Russians.
America’s ‘complete control’ had lasted a very short time, and there now followed forty years of Cold War, during which the Communist side was augmented by the addition of Communist China. By 1973, when I first wrote this History, the Americans had just failed to save Vietnam from communism, and it seemed possible that Communism would sweep the whole world. I was completely wrong. We were not then in a position to understand how inefficient communist economics was proving in Russia and China. To my astonishment communism was abandoned by both Russia and China within 20 years. China’s recovery from communism has been spectacular, and it is now colonising parts of Africa and constructing a new high speed railway along the old Silk Road to better sell its goods in Asia and Europe.
The Europeans reflected on their reduced state. They decided to pool their resources to assist economic recovery and prevent war. They began with a Common Market in which tariffs would disappear and trade flourish. Enthusiasts for the ‘European Project’ looking at Europe’s embarrassing track record of internal and imperial wars, looked further into the future and hoped to destroy the nationalistic and competitive instincts which they thought had caused them. A single European state, with free internal movement of people and an admixture of peoples previously regarded as ‘inferior’ would, they were sure, make the old warlike states fade away and form a new European identity. Remembering the mood of 1914, in which great crowds greeted the news of war with enthusiasm, the planners of the new Europe arranged that their new European Union would be run by professional bureaucrats rather than Kaisers or directly elected demagogues. Some even look forward to the creation of a European army.
Jews had been expelled from their homeland by the Romans in the first century, and had suffered with the Europeans among whom they had been scattered. In the midst of Christians, Jews were blamed for the crucifixion of Jesus. They were attacked at the beginning of every crusade because Europeans could not tell the difference between them and Muslims. They were blamed for causing the Black Death 500 years before microbiology had suggested how that might be done. Jews then shared in the blossoming of Europe. We have noted that Imperialism was financed by capitalism. Capitalism depends on the taking of interest, but Christians were forbidden to do this by the Pope. Jews were not forbidden, and some stepped into the banking role, thus attracting to themselves the additional dislike of ‘banksters’ which we often hear about. Hitler had used hatred of Jews to spice up his anti-communist policies, and sent millions to the gas chambers.
In the horror provoked by the discovery of the death camps like Auschwitz, Israel was created to give Jews somewhere where they would be safe from persecution. This brand new country was situated in lands from which the Jews had been expelled nearly 2000 years before. They had been inhabited by Muslims for more than a thousand years since then, but the Muslim Arabs were close to the bottom of the racist pecking order which still influenced decision making, and their protests, though understandable, were ignored, so they made war on Israel. They were defeated. After 20 years they turned to terrorism instead, hi-jacking airliners and blowing them up. In 1972 the whole world became aware of the issue when Arab terrorists shot nineteen members of the Israeli athletics team at the Munich Olympics in an incident much of which appeared on the world’s television screens.
In 1973 another war seemed to be heading towards another Arab defeat when Arab oil producers decided to withhold their oil from world markets. The Western world ran on oil, and many Muslims were opposed to the way in which the West had managed the politics of the Muslim world to the profit of their multinational oil companies, and the disadvantage of the people of the region. Within a short time the Israelis were forced to give up their conquests. When oil came back on to the market it was much more expensive. Europeans now pay 20 times more for petrol than they paid in 1962. This was as significant an indicator of the Europeans’ fall from power as their loss of empire.
Israel had not fallen, and terrorism continued. The technical knowledge which had once been the possession of the Europeans alone had now become international. “Whatever happens, come what may, we’ve got computers but so have they…” Lockerbie and 9/11 are fresh in the memory.
The World was plunged into R Rethinking.
The founders of the European Union hoped that an admixture of non-Europeans would make the Europeans less bellicose and nationalistic. Many arrived, often as refugees from wars or economic migrants.
Some Muslims have a mission to bring their grievances to the notice of the Europeans: they have brought terrorism with them. Bombings, shootings, knifings and beheadings have occurred on European territory. This is partly due to the old grievance against Israel, but partly also due to the last of several puritanical movements which have swept over Islam during its history. The word ‘Assassin’ came into English during the 12th Century to describe a member of one such movement. Puritanical Muslims are highly critical of Western cultural practices, including particularly those relating to women and homosexuals.
You see now what I was on about with the letters. Using the mnemonic HISTORY you can now go impress your friends by summing up what I have said. H was Homo Sapiens making his way to the top of the Food Chain by Hunting. I was the variety of Imperial Regimes which came and went. S was the shooting, studying and sailing which propelled the Europeans to global supremacy and T their total control. O was the overwhelming of the Europeans in the two World Wars, and their being Outclassed by the superpowers America, Russia and China. R is the rethinking which is going on about the place of Europeans in the world, and it’s Y Your History and Your problem!
History of the World in 26 Minutes
History of the World in 1500 Words
The Dark Ages
Offa of Mercia
Ethelred the Unready
Hundred Years War
John of Gaunt
Jean de Dunois
Arthur de Richemont
The Battle of Formigny
The Duke of Suffolk
The Battle of Castillon
Boston Tea Party
Napoleon at Toulon
The Reoccupation of the Rhineland, 1936
The Voyage of the Empire Windrush
Boston Tea Party
Of Mice and Men
Leopold ll of Belgium
Assassination at Sarajevo
Foundation of Israel
1 Putting the booklists in here is a recent idea, and not all of them have them. My apologies, but if you really want one which isn’t there I’ll delve back in the wreckage of old dead hard disks and try to recover them.